Tags and Labels


We use spaCy for sentence dependency structure processing. Annotations for Part-of-Speech (POS) tags and Dependency Labels are given below.

Part of Speech Tags (POS)


Ex: big, old, green, incomprehensible, first

Ex: in, to, during

Ex: very, tomorrow, down, where, there

Ex: is, has (done), will (do), should (do)

Ex: and, or, but

Ex: a, an, the

Ex: psst, ouch, bravo, hello

Ex: girl, cat, tree, air, beauty

Ex: 1, 2017, one, seventy-seven, IV, MMXIV

Ex: ’s, not,

Ex: I, you, he, she, myself, themselves, somebody

Ex: Mary, John, London, NATO, HBO

Ex: ., (, ), ?

Ex: $, %, §, ©, +, −, ×, ÷, =, :), 😝

Ex: run, runs, running, eat, ate, eating

Ex: asdasdasd

Dependency Labels


A finite or non-finite clausal modifier (acl) is either an infinitival modifier is an infinitive clause or phrase that modifies the head of a noun phrase, or a participial modifier is a clause or phrase whose head is a verb in a participial form (e.g., gerund, past participle) that modifies the head of a noun phrase, or a complement.

An adjectival complement (acomp) is an adjective phrase that modifies the head of a VP|SINV|SQ, that is usually a verb.

An adverbial clause modifier (advcl) is a clause that acts like an adverbial modifier.

An adverbial modifier (advmod) is an adverb or an adverb phrase that modifies the meaning of another word.

An agent (agent) is the complement of a passive verb that is the surface subject of its active form.

An adjectival modifier (amod) is an adjective or an adjective phrase that modifies the meaning of another word, usually a noun.

An appositional modifier (appos) of an NML|NP is a noun phrase immediately preceded by another noun phrase, which gives additional information to its preceding noun phrase.

An attribute (attr) is a noun phrase that is a non-VP predicate usually following a copula verb.

An auxiliary (aux) is an auxiliary or modal verb that gives further information about the main verb (e.g., tense, aspect).

A passive auxiliary (auxpass) is an auxiliary verb, be, become, or get, that modifies a passive verb.

A case marker (case) is either a possessive marker, ...

A coordinating conjunction (cc) is a dependent of the leftmost conjunct in coordination.

A clausal complement (ccomp) is a clause with an internal subject that modifies the head of an ADJP|ADVP|NML|NP|WHNP|VP|SINV|SQ.

A compound (compound) is either a noun modifying the head of noun phrase, a number modifying the head of quantifier phrase, or a hyphenated word (or a preposition modifying the head of the prepositioanl phrase).

A conjunct (conj) is a dependent of the leftmost conjunct in coordination.

A clausal subject (csubj) is a clause in the subject position of an active verb.

A clausal passive subject (csubjpass) is a clause in the subject position of a passive verb.

An unclassified dependent (dep) is a dependent that does not satisfy conditions for any other dependency.

A determiner (det) is a word token whose pos tag is DT|WDT|WP that modifies the head of a noun phrase.

A direct object (dobj) is a noun phrase that is the accusative object of a (di)transitive verb.

An expletive (expl) is an existential there in the subject position.

A marker (mark) is either a subordinating conjunction (e.g., although, because, while) that introduces an adverbial clause modifier, or a subordinating conjunction, if, that, or whether, that introduces a clausal complement.

A meta modifier (meta) is code (1), embedded (2), or meta (3) information that is randomly inserted in a phrase or clause.

A negation modifier (neg) is an adverb that gives negative meaning to its head.

An adverbial noun phrase modifier (npmod) is a noun phrase that acts like an adverbial modifier.

A nominal subject (nsubj) is a non-clausal constituent in the subject position of an active verb.

A nominal passive subject (nsubjpass) is a non-clausal constituent in the subject position of a passive verb.

A numeric modifier (nummod) is any number or quantifier phrase that modifies the head of a noun phrase.

An object predicate (oprd) is a non-VP predicate in a small clause that functions like the predicate of an object.

A complement of a preposition (pcomp) is any dependent that is not a pobj but modifies the head of a prepositional phrase.

An object of a preposition (pobj) is a noun phrase that modifies the head of a prepositional phrase, which is usually a preposition but can be a verb in a participial form such as VBG.

A possession modifier (poss) is either a possessive determiner (PRP$) or a NML|NP|WHNP containing a possessive ending that modifies the head of a ADJP|NML|NP|QP|WHNP.

A predeterminer (predet) is a word token whose pos tag is PDT that modifies the head of a noun phrase.

A prepositional modifier (prep) is any prepositional phrase that modifies the meaning of its head.

A particle (prt) is a preposition in a phrasal verb that forms a verb-particle construction.

Any punctuation (punct) is assigned the dependency label PUNCT.

A relative clause modifier (relcl) is a either relative clause or a reduced relative clause that modifies the head of an NML|NP|WHNP.

An open clausal complement (xcomp) is a clause without an internal subject that modifies the head of an ADJP|ADVP|VP|SINV|SQ.