1905 Russian Revolution

The Russian Revolution of 1905,[lower-alpha 1] also known as the First Russian Revolution,[lower-alpha 2] was a wave of mass political and social unrest that spread through vast areas of the Russian Empire, some of which was directed at the government. It included worker strikes, peasant unrest, and military mutinies. It led to constitutional reform (namely the "October Manifesto"), including the establishment of the State Duma, the multi-party system, and the Russian Constitution of 1906.

Russian Revolution of 1905

Demonstrations before Bloody Sunday
Date22 January 1905 – 16 June 1907
(2 years, 4 months, 3 weeks and 4 days)
Location
Result
Belligerents

Russian Imperial Government
Supported by:

Revolutionaries
Supported by:

Commanders and leaders
Casualties and losses
  • 3,611 killed or wounded[1]
  • 15,000 killed[1]
  • 20,000 wounded[1]
  • 38,000 captured[1]
  • 1 battleship surrendered to Romania

The 1905 revolution was spurred by the Russian defeat in the Russo-Japanese War, which ended in the same year, but also by the growing realization by a variety of sectors of society of the need for reform. Politicians such as Sergei Witte had failed to accomplish this. While the Tsar managed to keep his rule, the events foreshadowed those of the Russian revolutions in 1917, which resulted in the overthrow of the monarchy, execution of the imperial family, and creation of the Soviet Union by the Bolsheviks.

Some historians contend that the 1905 revolution set the stage for the 1917 Russian Revolutions, and enabled Bolshevism to emerge as a distinct political movement in Russia, although it was still a minority. Lenin, as later head of the USSR, called it "The Great Dress Rehearsal", without which the "victory of the October Revolution in 1917 would have been impossible".[2]