1935 Canadian banknote series


The 1935 Canadian banknote series is the first series of banknotes of the Canadian dollar issued by the Bank of Canada. They were first circulated on 11 March 1935, the same day that the Bank of Canada officially started operating. Two sets of banknotes were printed for each denomination, one in French for Quebec, and one in English for the rest of Canada.[1][2] This is the only series issued by the Bank of Canada with dual unilingual banknotes.[3] This series was followed by the 1937 Canadian banknote series.

The $1 banknote of the 1935 Series features a portrait of George V.

The Bank of Canada issued a press release in February 1935 announcing details of the banknotes to "prevent possible confusion" amongst the public and as a protective measure against counterfeiting.[1] The Bank of Canada Act which had established the Bank of Canada also resulted in the repeal of the Finance Act and the Dominion Notes Act.[3] With the introduction of the 1935 Series into circulation, the Dominion of Canada banknotes were withdrawn from circulation by the Bank of Canada from 1935 to 1950,[3][4] which also replaced the Department of Finance as the nation's exclusive issuer of banknotes.[5][6]

Banknotes


The Government of Canada intended to release the banknotes on the same day as the official opening of the Bank of Canada.[7] It required months of work and preparation for the design, approval, and production of the banknote series.[8] Designs for the banknotes were created by the Canadian Bank Note Company (CBN) and the British American Bank Note Company (BABN, now BA International), both of which had designed and printed the preceding Dominion of Canada banknotes.[7]

All but the commemorative $25 banknote began circulating on 11 March 1935, the same day that the Bank of Canada officially started operating.[1][3] All banknotes contained the words "Ottawa, Issue of 1935" centrally at the top of the obverse, except for the $20 banknote, in which the words appeared below the serial number.[9] This is the only Bank of Canada series that includes $25 and $500 banknotes,[6] and the only series that includes the official seal of the Bank of Canada.[10] The $500 banknote was a "carry-over from Dominion of Canada bank notes", and is the only Bank of Canada banknote series to include this denomination.[6]

Other than the language in which they were printed, the English and French banknotes were the same.[6] In May 1935, deputy governor of the Bank of Canada John Osborne wrote a letter to a colleague in England in which he stated that "the English-speaking population is inclined to mutilate the French notes, and the French population complains they cannot get enough of their own notes".[10]

All banknotes in the series measure 152.4 by 73.025 millimetres (6.000 by 2.875 in), slightly shorter and wider than the 1914, 1918, 1928, and 1934 Federal Reserve Notes in circulation in the United States at the time, and were described by The Ottawa Evening Citizen as a "novelty to Canada".[1] They were printed on a material consisting of 75% linen and 25% cotton manufactured by the Howard Smith Paper Mills (now Domtar).[11]

DenominationFace Image, EnglishFace image, FrenchBack image, EnglishBack image, FrenchColourFaceBackPrintedIssued
$1[12]   Green George V Agriculture allegory 1935 11 March 1935
$2[13]   Blue Queen Mary Transportation allegory 1935 11 March 1935
$5[14]   Orange Edward, Prince of Wales Electric power allegory 1935 11 March 1935
$10[15]   Dark purple Princess Mary Harvest allegory 1935 11 March 1935
$20[16]   Rose Princess Elizabeth Agriculture allegory 1935 11 March 1935
$25[17]   Royal purple King George V and Queen Mary Windsor Castle 1935 6 May 1935
$50[18]   Reddish brown Prince Albert, Duke of York Modern Inventions allegory 1935 11 March 1935
$100[19]   Dark brown Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester Commerce and industry allegory 1935 11 March 1935
$500[20]   Sepia John A. Macdonald Fertility allegory 1935 11 March 1935
$1000[21]   Olive Wilfrid Laurier Security allegory 1935 11 March 1935

The banknotes were printed in greater variation of colour than the Dominion of Canada banknotes that had been previously issued.[1] These were green for the $1 banknote,[12] blue for the $2 banknote,[13] orange for the $5 banknote,[14] dark purple for the $10 banknote,[15] rose for the $20 banknote,[16] reddish brown for the $50 banknote,[18] dark brown for the $100 banknote,[19] sepia for the $500 banknote,[20] and olive for the $1000 banknote.[21] In April 1935, an article in The St. Maurice Valley Chronicle of Trois-Rivières stated that the appearance of the obverse of the $1 and $2 banknotes were too similar, particularly the green hue of the $1 banknote and the blue hue of the $2 banknote.[22] It stated that the colours of the reverse were more distinct, but could be "confused in artificial light".[22] The same article stated that the similarity between the English and French versions of the banknotes was a positive feature.[22] For the 1937 Series banknotes, the Bank of Canada would change the colour of the $2 banknote to terracotta red to address the issue.[23]

The design of the banknotes was in a similar formal baroque style of the earlier Dominion of Canada banknotes, with wide variation between the denominations in the series.[10] The central numerals on the obverse of each denomination have a distinct background design, each with a portrait to the left.[10] The corner numerals and decoration are also different for each banknote denomination.[10]

Portraits

The royal portraits used for the engravings were based on older photographs of each member of the royal family, who were said to "appear younger than their years on the new notes".[22] Depicted on the $1 banknote was George V.[12] The portrait and design was approved by Edgar Nelson Rhodes on 10 May 1934. [24]

Queen Mary appeared on the $2 banknote,[13] her portrait based on a photograph by Hay Wrighton that was engraved by Will Ford of the American Bank Note Company (ABN) and master engraver Harry P. Dawson of the BABN.[9][25] The portrait of Edward, Prince of Wales wearing a colonel's uniform on the $5 banknote was based on a Department of External Affairs photograph taken by British photographer Vandyke and engraved by Dawson.[14][25] On the $10 banknote was a portrait of Princess Mary based on a photograph by official British Royal Family photographer Richard Speaight and engraved by Dawson.[15][25]

Princess Elizabeth at the age of 8 appears on the $20 banknote, the portrait based on a Marcus Adams photograph from 1934 for which an engraving was created by master engraver Edwin Gunn of ABN.[16][26][27] The portrait of Prince Albert, Duke of York wearing an admiral's uniform on the $50 banknote was based on a photograph taken by Bertram Park, for which an engraving was made by Robert Savage of ABN.[18][28] It was subsequently used on six of the banknotes of the 1937 Series.[29] The $100 banknote includes a portrait of Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester wearing the captain's uniform of the 10th Royal Hussars based on a photograph by Vandyke for which Ford created an engraving.[19]

The portrait of John A. Macdonald wearing a fur-collared coat and engraved by Ford is on the $500 banknote (and was also used on the $100 banknote of the 1937 Series banknotes), and a Gunn engraving of Wilfrid Laurier wearing a Prince Albert coat is the portrait on the $1000 banknote.[27][29]

Allegories

Each denomination had a reverse depicting an allegorical figure, the framing of which was different for each denomination.[10] Agriculture was depicted on the $1 banknote[12] based on a painting by Alonzo Foringer of ABN, based on an engraving made by Will Jung.[9] A transportation allegory featuring the Roman mythological figure Mercury created by BABNC artists was on the $2 banknote,[13][9] electric power generation engraved by Dawson on the $5 banknote,[14][25] and of harvest engraved by Dawson on the $10 banknote.[15][25] The $20 bank note, also based on a painting by Alonzo Foringer of ABN, shows two allegorical figures representing toil.[16] [26] An allegory of modern inventions is on the $50 banknote,[18] and commerce and industry is on the $100 banknote.[19] The fertility allegory on the $500 banknote was based on another painting by Foringer.[20][30] The allegorical figure of security on the $1000 banknote was previously used on a 1917 issue of Russian bonds.[21][27]

Commemorative $25 banknote

On 6 May 1935, the Bank of Canada issued a $25 banknote to commemorate the Silver Jubilee of the accession of George V to the throne.[17] It was a royal purple banknote with the portraits of King George V and Queen Mary on the obverse engraved by Ford and Gunn, and a scene depicting Windsor Castle on the reverse engraved by Louis Delmoce of ABN.[17][26] It was the first commemorative banknote issued by the Bank of Canada.[31]

Printing


All printings of each denomination of the banknote series were signed by Graham Towers, the Governor of the Bank of Canada, and J.A.C. Osborne, the deputy governor.[12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21] The English banknotes had serial numbers starting with the letter A, and the French banknotes had serial numbers starting with the letter F.

The Canadian Bank Note Company printed the $1 (series A and F), $20 (series A and F), $50 (series A and F), $100 (series A and F), $500 (series A and F), and $1000 (series A and F) banknotes, and the commemorative $25 banknote.[32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39] The British American Bank Note Company printed the $2 (series A and F), $5 (series A and F), and $10 (series A and F) banknotes.[40][41][42]

Collecting


As of 2009, for a banknote graded as "very fine" a collector could expect to pay about US$1,600 for the commemorative $25 banknote, US$1,150 for the $50 banknote, US$750 for the $20 banknote, US$150 for the $10 banknote, and US$50 for the $1 banknote.[43]

Notes


  1. The Ottawa Evening Citizen 1935, p. 1.
  2. Milwaukee Journal 1937, p. 7.
  3. Powell 2005, p. 29, Establishment of a central bank.
  4. Pomfret 2013, p. 177.
  5. Gough 2010, p. 83.
  6. Bank of Canada.
  7. The Art and Design of Canadian Bank Notes 2006, p. 21.
  8. The Art and Design of Canadian Bank Notes 2006.
  9. The Art and Design of Canadian Bank Notes 2006, p. 31.
  10. The Art and Design of Canadian Bank Notes 2006, p. 22.
  11. The Art and Design of Canadian Bank Notes 2006, p. 23.
  12. Bank of Canada: $1 note.
  13. Bank of Canada: $2 note.
  14. Bank of Canada: $5 note.
  15. Bank of Canada: $10 note.
  16. Bank of Canada: $20 note.
  17. Bank of Canada: $25 note.
  18. Bank of Canada: $50 note.
  19. Bank of Canada: $100 note.
  20. Bank of Canada: $500 note.
  21. Bank of Canada: $1000 note.
  22. The St. Maurice Valley Chronicle 1935, p. 2.
  23. The Art and Design of Canadian Bank Notes 2006, p. 38.
  24. The Art and Design of Canadian Bank Notes 2006, p. 25.
  25. The Art and Design of Canadian Bank Notes 2006, p. 32.
  26. The Art and Design of Canadian Bank Notes 2006, p. 33.
  27. The Art and Design of Canadian Bank Notes 2006, p. 35.
  28. The Art and Design of Canadian Bank Notes 2006, p. 34.
  29. The Art and Design of Canadian Bank Notes 2006, p. 26.
  30. The Art and Design of Canadian Bank Notes 2006, p. 28.
  31. Powell 2005, p. 44, The Depression Years and the Creation of the Bank of Canada (1930—1939).
  32. Currency Museum: $1.
  33. Currency Museum: $20.
  34. Currency Museum: $50.
  35. Currency Museum: $100.
  36. Currency Museum: $500.
  37. Currency Museum: $1000.
  38. Currency Museum: $25.
  39. Cuhaj 2010, p. 188–189.
  40. Currency Museum: $2.
  41. Currency Museum: $5.
  42. Currency Museum: $10.
  43. Sieber 2009, p. 1957.

References


  • Cuhaj, George S., ed. (2010). Standard Catalog Of World Paper Money General Issues 13681960. Krause Publications. ISBN 9781440216350. ISSN 1538-2001.
  • Gough, Barry M. (2010). Historical Dictionary of Canada. Historical Dictionaries of the Americas (2nd ed.). Scarecrow Press. ISBN 9780810875043. LCCN 2010022542.
  • Pomfret, Richard (2013). The Economic Development of Canada. Economic history (reprint ed.). Routledge. ISBN 9781136593710.
  • Powell, James (December 2005). A History of the Canadian dollar (PDF). Bank of Canada. ISBN 0662281233. Retrieved 23 September 2014.
  • Sieber, Arlyn (2009). World Coins & Currency, Warman's Companion (2nd ed.). Krause Publications. ISBN 9781440219313. LCCN 2008937697.
  • The Art and Design of Canadian Bank Notes (PDF). Bank of Canada. 6 December 2006. ISBN 0660632462. Retrieved 13 March 2014.
  • "1935 Series". Bank of Canada, archived at Collections Canada. Retrieved 12 March 2014.
  • "$1". Bank Note Series, 1935 to present. Bank of Canada, archived at Collections Canada. Retrieved 12 March 2014.
  • "$2". Bank Note Series, 1935 to present. Bank of Canada, archived at Collections Canada. Retrieved 12 March 2014.
  • "$5". Bank Note Series, 1935 to present. Bank of Canada, archived at Collections Canada. Retrieved 12 March 2014.
  • "$10". Bank Note Series, 1935 to present. Bank of Canada, archived at Collections Canada. Retrieved 12 March 2014.
  • "$20". Bank Note Series, 1935 to present. Bank of Canada, archived at Collections Canada. Retrieved 12 March 2014.
  • "$25". Bank Note Series, 1935 to present. Bank of Canada, archived at Collections Canada. Retrieved 12 March 2014.
  • "$50". Bank Note Series, 1935 to present. Bank of Canada, archived at Collections Canada. Retrieved 12 March 2014.
  • "$100". Bank Note Series, 1935 to present. Bank of Canada, archived at Collections Canada. Retrieved 12 March 2014.
  • "$500". Bank Note Series, 1935 to present. Bank of Canada, archived at Collections Canada. Retrieved 12 March 2014.
  • "$1000". Bank Note Series, 1935 to present. Bank of Canada, archived at Collections Canada. Retrieved 12 March 2014.
  • "Canada, Bank of Canada, 1 dollar : 1935". Currency Museum, Bank of Canada. Retrieved 12 March 2014.
  • "Canada, Bank of Canada, 2 dollars : 1935". Currency Museum, Bank of Canada. Retrieved 12 March 2014.
  • "Canada, Bank of Canada, 5 dollars : 1935". Currency Museum, Bank of Canada. Retrieved 12 March 2014.
  • "Canada, Bank of Canada, 10 dollars : 1935". Currency Museum, Bank of Canada. Retrieved 12 March 2014.
  • "Canada, Bank of Canada, 20 dollars : 1935". Currency Museum, Bank of Canada. Retrieved 12 March 2014.
  • "Canada, Bank of Canada, 50 dollars : 1935". Currency Museum, Bank of Canada. Retrieved 12 March 2014.
  • "Canada, Bank of Canada, 50 dollars : 1935". Currency Museum, Bank of Canada. Retrieved 12 March 2014.
  • "Canada, Bank of Canada, 100 dollars : 1935". Currency Museum, Bank of Canada. Retrieved 12 March 2014.
  • "Canada, Bank of Canada, 500 dollars : 1935". Currency Museum, Bank of Canada. Retrieved 12 March 2014.
  • "Canada, Bank of Canada, 1000 dollars : 1935". Currency Museum, Bank of Canada. Retrieved 12 March 2014.
  • "Bilingual bank notes the latest in Canada". Milwaukee Journal. 19 July 1937.
  • "Size of bank notes will provide novelty". The Ottawa Evening Citizen. 92 (217). 28 February 1935.
  • "The new bank notes". The St. Maurice Valley Chronicle. 18 April 1935.