1983 United Kingdom general election


The 1983 United Kingdom general election was held on Thursday 9 June 1983. It gave the Conservative Party under the leadership of Margaret Thatcher the most decisive election victory since that of the Labour Party in 1945, with a landslide majority of 144 seats.

1983 United Kingdom general election

 1979 9 June 1983 1987 

All 650 seats in the House of Commons
326 seats needed for a majority
Opinion polls
Turnout72.7%, 3.3%
  First party Second party Third party
 
Leader Margaret Thatcher Michael Foot
Party Conservative Labour Alliance
Leader since 11 February 1975 10 November 1980
Leader's seat Finchley Blaenau Gwent
Last election 339 seats, 43.9% 269 seats, 36.9% 11 seats, 13.8%[lower-alpha 1]
Seats before 339 261 11
Seats won 397 209 23
Seat change 58[lower-alpha 2] 60[lower-alpha 2] 12[lower-alpha 2]
Popular vote 13,012,316 8,456,934 7,780,949
Percentage 42.4% 27.6% 25.4%
Swing 1.5% 9.3% 11.6%

Colours denote the winning party—as shown in § Results

Composition of the House of Commons after the election

Prime Minister before election

Margaret Thatcher
Conservative

Prime Minister after election

Margaret Thatcher
Conservative

Thatcher's first term as Prime Minister had not been an easy time.[1] Unemployment increased during the first three years of her premiership and the economy went through a recession. However, the British victory in the Falklands War led to a recovery of her personal popularity; the economy had also returned to growth.

By the time Thatcher called the election in May 1983, the opinion polls pointed towards a Conservative victory, with most national newspapers backing the re-election of the Conservative government. The resulting win earned the Conservatives their biggest parliamentary majority of the post-war era, and their second-biggest majority as a single-party government, behind only the 1924 election (they earned even more seats in the 1931 election, but were part of the National Government).[2]

The Labour Party had been led by Michael Foot since the resignation of former Prime Minister James Callaghan in 1980, and had seen a shift in its policies which was considered more left-wing than usual.[2][3] Several moderate Labour MPs had defected from the party to form the Social Democratic Party (SDP); they then formed the SDP–Liberal Alliance with the existing Liberal Party.

The opposition vote split almost evenly between the Alliance and Labour. With its worst electoral performance since 1918, the Labour vote fell by over 3 million votes from 1979 and this accounted for both a national swing of almost 4% towards the Conservatives and their larger parliamentary majority of 144 seats, even though the Conservatives' total vote fell by almost 700,000. This was the last general election until 2015 in which a governing party increased its number of seats.

The Alliance finished in third place but came within 700,000 votes of out-polling Labour; by gaining 25.4% of the vote it won the largest percentage for any third party since sixty years prior. Despite this, it won only 23 seats, whereas Labour won 209. The Liberals argued that a proportional electoral system would have given them a more representative number of MPs. Changing the electoral system had been a long-running Liberal Party campaign plank, and would later be adopted by the Liberal Democrats.

The election night was broadcast live on the BBC, and was presented by David Dimbleby, Sir Robin Day and Peter Snow.[4] It was also broadcast on ITV, and presented by Alastair Burnet, Peter Sissons and Martyn Lewis.

Three future leaders of the Labour Party (Tony Blair, Gordon Brown and Jeremy Corbyn) were first elected at this election; Blair and Brown went on to hold the office of Prime Minister.

As the likes of Blair, Brown and Corbyn entered parliament, a string of prominent members of parliament stepped aside or lost their seats. Former Labour Prime Minister Harold Wilson stood down from parliament after 38 years, while the SDP's Shirley Williams and Bill Rodgers lost their seats only a short time after winning them. Joan Lestor, Tony Benn as well as Speaker of the House of Commons and former Labour cabinet minister George Thomas also departed from parliament at this election, although Benn would return after winning a by-election in Chesterfield the following year, and Lestor returned to parliament after winning a seat at the following general election in 1987. In addition, two future Leaders of the Liberal Democrats (the successors to the Alliance at the end of the decade) were first elected - (Paddy Ashdown and Charles Kennedy). Michael Howard, who later served the Conservatives as Home Secretary in government and as party leader in opposition, was also elected to parliament in 1983.

Background and campaign


Michael Foot was elected leader of the Labour Party at the end of 1980, replacing James Callaghan. The election of Foot signalled that the core of the party was swinging to the left and the move exacerbated divisions within the party. During 1981, a group of senior figures including Roy Jenkins, David Owen, Bill Rodgers and Shirley Williams left Labour to found the Social Democratic Party (SDP). The SDP agreed to a pact with the Liberals for the 1983 election and stood as "The Alliance". For a while the Alliance topped the opinion polls and looked capable of achieving their goal of forming a coalition government at the next general election, but the success of the Falklands campaign in 1982 saw the political tide turn in favour of the Conservative government.

The election did not have to be held until 1984. Although political circumstances were clearly favourable for the government and opposition parties anticipated that Mrs Thatcher would go to the country in June, earlier in 1983 the Conservatives were split on the timing of the election. One faction favoured a June election, but another group wanted to wait until October before going to the country, while some within the Party even advocated delaying the contest until 1984. Supporters of waiting to a later time to hold an election included Thatcher's deputy and Home Secretary Willie Whitelaw and John Biffen who was then serving as Leader of the House of Commons.[5] On 27 April it was reported that all the Conservative party's regional agents had unanimously expressed a preference to Thatcher for a June election, although some members of her cabinet were advising her to wait until October.[6] On 8 May senior Conservatives met at Chequers and agreed to go to the country on 9 June. The election was formally called the next day and Parliament was dissolved on 13 May for a four-week official election campaign.[5]

The campaign displayed the huge divisions between the two major parties. Thatcher had been highly unpopular during her first two years in office until the swift and decisive victory in the Falklands War, coupled with an improving economy, considerably raised her standings in the polls. The Conservatives' key issues included reducing umeployment (which had increased from 1.5 million in 1979 to more than 3 million by 1982), continuing economic growth following the recent recession, and defence. Labour's campaign manifesto involved leaving the European Economic Community, abolishing the House of Lords, abandoning the United Kingdom's nuclear deterrent by cancelling Trident and removing cruise missiles — a programme dubbed by Labour MP Gerald Kaufman "the longest suicide note in history"; "Although, at barely 37 pages, it only seemed interminable", noted Roy Hattersley. Pro-Labour political journalist Michael White, writing in The Guardian, commented: "There was something magnificently brave about Michael Foot's campaign but it was like the Battle of the Somme."[7]

National election, 1979


Following boundary changes in 1983, the BBC and ITN (Independent Television News) co-produced a calculation of how the 1979 general election would have gone if fought on the new 1983 boundaries. The following table shows the effects of the boundary changes on the House of Commons:[citation needed]

UK General Election 1979
Party Seats Gains Losses Net gain/loss Seats % Votes % Votes +/−
  Conservative 359 +20 55 44.9 13,703,429
  Labour 261 −8 40 37.7 11,512,877
  Liberal 9 −2 1 14.2 4,324,936
  SNP 2 0 0 1.6 497,128
  Plaid Cymru 2 0 0 0.4 135,241
  Other parties 17 +5 3 3.4 1,063,263

Timeline


Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher visited Buckingham Palace on the afternoon of 9 May and asked the Queen to dissolve Parliament on 13 May, announcing that the election would be held on 9 June. The key dates were as follows:[citation needed]

Friday 13 MayDissolution of the 48th Parliament and campaigning officially begins
Monday 23 MayLast day to file nomination papers; 2,579 candidates enter
Wednesday 8 JuneCampaigning officially ends
Thursday 9 JunePolling day
Friday 10 JuneThe Conservative Party wins with a majority of 144 to retain power
Wednesday 15 June49th Parliament assembles
Wednesday 22 JuneState Opening of Parliament

Results


The election saw a landslide victory for the Conservatives, achieving their best results since 1935. Although there was a slight drop in their share of the vote, they made significant gains at the expense of Labour. The night was a disaster for the Labour Party; their share of the vote fell by over 9%, which meant they were only 700,000 votes ahead of the newly-formed third party, the SDP–Liberal Alliance. The massive increase of support for the Alliance at the expense of Labour meant that, in many seats,[which?] the collapse in the Labour vote allowed the Conservatives to gain. Despite winning over 25% of the national vote, the Alliance got fewer than 4% of seats, 186 fewer than Labour. The most significant Labour loss of the night was Tony Benn, who was defeated in the revived Bristol East seat. SDP President Shirley Williams, then a prominent leader in the Social Democratic Party, lost her Crosby seat which she had won in a by-election in 1981. Bill Rodgers, another leading figure in the Alliance (like Williams, one of the "Gang of Four") also failed to win his old seat that he previously held as a Labour MP.

In Scotland, both Labour and the Tories sustained modest losses to the Alliance. Labour remained by far the largest party, with 41 seats to 21 for the Scottish Conservatives. The Scottish Conservatives have been unable to match their 1983 Westminster seat total since, although they did record a slightly larger share of the Scottish vote in 2017, by which time the Scottish National Party had become the dominant party in Scotland with the Tories being the largest unionist party.

On a UK-wide basis, the 1983 election was the worst result in Labour's modern history until the 2019 election, in terms of seats won. The 1983 result remains the worst-ever modern performance for Labour in England.

397 209 23 21
Conservative Labour Alliance O

1983 UK general election
Candidates Votes
Party Leader Stood Elected Gained Unseated Net  % of total  % No. Net %
  Conservative Margaret Thatcher 633 397 47 10 +37 61.1 42.4 13,012,316 −1.5
  Labour Michael Foot 633 209 4 55 −51 32.2 27.6 8,456,934 −9.3
  Alliance David Steel & Roy Jenkins 636[lower-alpha 3] 23 12 0 +12 4.5 25.4 7,794,770 +11.6
  SNP Gordon Wilson 72 2 0 0 0 0.3 1.1 331,975 −0.5
  UUP James Molyneaux 16 11 3 1 +2 1.7 0.8 259,952 0.0
  DUP Ian Paisley 14 3 2 1 +1 0.5 0.5 152,749 +0.3
  SDLP John Hume 17 1 0 1 −1 0.2 0.4 137,012 0.0
  Plaid Cymru Dafydd Wigley 38 2 0 0 0 0.3 0.4 125,309 0.0
  Sinn Féin Ruairí Ó Brádaigh 14 1 1 1 0 0.2 0.3 102,701 N/A
  Alliance Oliver Napier 12 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.2 61,275 −0.1
  Ecology Jonathon Porritt 109 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.2 54,299 +0.1
  Independent N/A 73 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.1 30,422 N/A
  National Front Andrew Brons 60 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.1 27,065 −0.5
  UPUP James Kilfedder 1 1 1 0 +1 0.2 0.1 22,861 N/A
  Independent Labour N/A 8 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.1 16,447 0.0
  Workers' Party Tomás Mac Giolla 14 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 14,650 −0.1
  BNP John Tyndall 54 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 14,621 N/A
  Communist Gordon McLennan 35 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 11,606 −0.1
  Independent Socialist N/A 1 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 10,326 N/A
  Ind. Conservative N/A 10 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 9,442 0.0
  Independent Communist N/A 2 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 4,760 N/A
  Workers Revolutionary Michael Banda 21 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 3,798 −0.1
  Monster Raving Loony Screaming Lord Sutch 11 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 3,015 N/A
  Wessex Regionalist N/A 10 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 1,750 0.0
  Mebyon Kernow Richard Jenkin 2 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 1,151 N/A
  Independent DUP N/A 1 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 1,134 N/A
  Licensees N/A 4 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 934 N/A
  Nationalist Party N/A 5 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 874 N/A
  Labour and Trade Union Peter Hadden 1 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 584 N/A
  Revolutionary Communist Frank Furedi 4 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 581 N/A
  Freedom Party N/A 1 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 508 N/A
All parties with more than 500 votes shown.[lower-alpha 4][lower-alpha 5][lower-alpha 6][lower-alpha 7]
Government's new majority 144
Total votes cast 30,671,137
Turnout 72.7%

Votes summary

Seats won in the election (outer ring) against number of votes (inner ring)
Popular vote
Conservative
42.43%
Labour
27.57%
SDP–Liberal
25.41%
Others
2.4%

Seats summary

Parliamentary seats
Conservative
61.08%
Labour
32.15%
SDP–Liberal
3.54%
Others
3.23%
Data from Guardian daily polls published in The Guardian between May and June 1983. Colour key:
  •   Conservative
  •   Labour
  •   Alliance
  •   Others
The disproportionality of the House of Commons in the 1983 election was "20.62" according to the Gallagher Index, mainly between the Conservatives and the Alliance.

Incumbents defeated


Party Name Constituency Office held whilst in Parliament Year elected Defeated by Party
Labour Tony Benn Bristol South East (contested Bristol East) Secretary of State for Energy (1975–1979) 1950[lower-alpha 8] Jonathan Sayeed Conservative
Albert Booth Barrow and Furness Secretary of State for Employment (1976–1979) 1966 Cecil Franks Conservative
Arthur Davidson Accrington (contested Hyndburn) Shadow Attorney General (1982–1983) 1966 Ken Hargreaves Conservative
Neil Carmichael Glasgow Kelvingrove (contested Glasgow Hillhead) Parliamentary Under-Secretary at the Department of Industry (1975-1976) 1962 Roy Jenkins MP SDP
Bob Cryer Keighley 1974 Gary Waller Conservative
Joseph Dean Leeds West Lord Commissioner of the Treasury (1978–1979) 1974 Michael Meadowcroft Liberal
David Ennals Norwich North Secretary of State for Social Services (1976–1979) 1974 Patrick Thompson Conservative
John Garrett Norwich South 1974 John Powley Conservative
Ted Graham Edmonton Lord Commissioner of the Treasury (1976–1979) 1974 Ian Twinn Conservative
William Homewood Kettering (contested Corby) 1979 William Powell Conservative
Frank Hooley Sheffield Heeley (contested Stratford-on-Avon) 1966 Alan Howarth Conservative
Russell Kerr Feltham and Heston 1966 Patrick Ground Conservative
Joan Lestor Eton and Slough (contested Slough) Chair of the Labour Party (1977–78) 1966 John Watts Conservative
Alex Lyon York 1966 Conal Gregory Conservative
Jim Marshall Leicester South 1974 Derek Spencer Conservative
Roland Moyle Lewisham East Minister of State for Health (1976–1979) 1966 Colin Moynihan Conservative
Stan Newens Harlow 1974 Jerry Hayes Conservative
Oswald O'Brien Darlington 1983 Michael Fallon Conservative
Christopher Price Lewisham West 1974 John Maples Conservative
Gwilym Roberts Cannock (contested Cannock and Burntwood) 1974 Gerald Howarth Conservative
John Sever Birmingham Ladywood, contested (Meriden) 1977 Iain Mills Conservative
John Spellar Birmingham Northfield 1982 Roger Douglas King Conservative
David Stoddart Swindon Lord Commissioner of the Treasury (1975-1978) 1970 Simon Coombs Conservative
Shirley Summerskill Halifax Under-Secretary of State for the Home Department (1976-1979) 1964 Roy Galley Conservative
Ann Taylor Bolton West (contested Bolton North East) 1974 Peter Thurnham Conservative
John Tilley Lambeth Central (contested Southwark and Bermondsey) 1978 Simon Hughes MP Liberal
Frank White Bury and Radcliffe (contested Bury North) 1974 Alistair Burt Conservative
Phillip Whitehead Derby North 1970 Greg Knight Conservative
William Whitlock Nottingham North Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs (1968-1969) 1959 Richard Ottaway Conservative
Kenneth Woolmer Batley and Morley (contested Batley and Spen) 1979 Elizabeth Peacock Conservative
SDP Tom Bradley[8] Leicester East 1962 Peter Bruinvels Conservative
Christopher Brocklebank-Fowler[9] North West Norfolk 1970 Henry Bellingham Conservative
Ronald Brown[10] Hackney South and Shoreditch 1964 Brian Sedgemore Conservative
Richard Crawshaw[11] Liverpool Toxteth (contested Liverpool Broadgreen) Second Deputy Chairmen of Ways and Means (1979–1981) 1964 Terry Fields Labour
George Cunningham[12] Islington South and Finsbury 1970 Chris Smith Labour
Tom Ellis[13] Wrexham (contested Clwyd South West) 1970 Robert Harvey Conservative
David Ginsburg[14] Dewsbury 1959 John Whitfield Conservative
John Grant[15] Islington Central (contested Islington North) Under-Secretary of State for Employment (1976-1979) 1970 Jeremy Corbyn Labour
John Horam[16] Gateshead West (contested Newcastle upon Tyne Central) Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Transport (1976-1979) 1970 Piers Merchant Conservative
Ednyfed Hudson Davies[17] Caerphilly (contested Basingstoke) 1979 Andrew Hunter Conservative
Edward Lyons[18] Bradford West 1966 Max Madden Labour
Dickson Mabon[19] Greenock and Port Glasgow (contested Inverclyde) Minister for Energy (1976–1979) 1955 Anna McCurley Conservative
Tom McNally[20] Stockport South (contested Stockport) 1979 Anthony Favell Conservative
Bryan Magee[21] Leyton 1974 Harry Cohen Labour
Bob Mitchell[22] Southampton Itchen 1971 Christopher Chope Conservative
Eric Ogden[23] Liverpool West Derby 1964 Bob Wareing Labour
William Rodgers[24] Stockton-on-Tees (contested Stockton North) Secretary of State for Transport (1976–1979) 1962 Frank Cook Labour
John Roper[25] Farnworth (contested Worsley) SDP Chief Whip (1981–83) 1970 Terry Lewis Labour
Neville Sandelson[26] Hayes and Harlington 1971 Terry Dicks Conservative
Jeffrey Thomas[27] Abertillery (contested Cardiff West) 1970 Stefan Terlezki Conservative
Michael Thomas[28] Newcastle-upon-Tyne East 1974 Nick Brown Labour
James Wellbeloved[29] Erith and Crayford 1965 David Evennett Conservative
Shirley Williams Crosby (elected as SDP) Secretary of State for Education and Science (1976–1979) 1981 Malcolm Thornton Conservative
Conservative David Myles Banffshire (contested Orkney and Shetland) 1979 Jim Wallace Liberal
Iain Sproat Aberdeen South (contested Roxburgh and Berwickshire) 1970 Archy Kirkwood Liberal
Delwyn Williams Montgomeryshire 1979 Alex Carlile Liberal
Hamish Gray Ross and Cromarty (contested Ross, Cromarty and Skye) Minister of State for Energy (1979–1983) 1970 Charles Kennedy SDP
Independent Ben Ford[30] Bradford North 1964 Geoffrey Lawler Conservative
Arthur Lewis[31] Newham North West 1945 Tony Banks Labour
Michael O'Halloran[32] Islington North 1969 Jeremy Corbyn Labour
Gerry Fitt[33] Belfast West 1966 Gerry Adams Sinn Féin
Sinn Féin Owen Carron Fermanagh and South Tyrone 1981 Ken Maginnis UUP
Liberal Bill Pitt Croydon North West 1981 Humfrey Malins Conservative

Tables of target seats


Conservative targets

Rank Constituency 1983 winner
1 Isle of Wight Alliance
2 Oxford East Conservative
3 Cunninghame North Conservative
4 Corby Conservative
5 Nottingham East Conservative
6 Hertfordshire West Conservative
7 Mitcham and Morden Conservative
8 Derbyshire South Conservative
9 Leicestershire North West Conservative
10 Southampton Itchen Conservative
11 Halifax Conservative
12 Stockton South Alliance
13 Lewisham West Conservative
14 Edmonton Conservative
15 Stevenage Conservative
16 York Conservative
17 Darlington Conservative
18 Ceredigion and Pembroke North Alliance
19 Inverness, Nairn and Lochaber Alliance
20 Bridgend Conservative

Labour targets

To regain an overall majority, Labour needed to make at least 65 gains.

Rank Constituency 1983 winner
1 Birmingham Northfield Conservative
2 Bury South Conservative
3 Dulwich Conservative
4 Liverpool Broadgreen Labour
5 Nottingham South Conservative
6 Aberdeen South Conservative
7 Stirling Conservative
8 Hornchurch Conservative
9 Luton South Conservative
10 Calder Valley Conservative
11 Pendle Conservative
12 Bolton North East Conservative
13 Cardiff Central Conservative
14 Croydon North West Conservative
15 Fulham Conservative
16 Cambridge Conservative
17 Birmingham Erdington Labour
18 Dudley West Conservative
19 Welwyn Hatfield Conservative
20 Glasgow Cathcart Labour

SDP–Liberal Alliance targets

Rank Constituency 1983 winner
1 Roxburgh and Berwickshire Alliance
2 Richmond and Barnes Conservative
3 Montgomeryshire Alliance
4 Chelmsford Conservative
5 Wiltshire North Conservative
6 Cornwall North Conservative
7 Hereford Conservative
8 Colne Valley Alliance
9 Gordon Alliance
10 Southport Conservative
11 Salisbury Conservative
12 Devon North Conservative
13 Gainsborough and Horncastle Conservative
14 Cornwall South East Conservative
15 Clwyd South West Conservative
16 Liverpool Broadgreen Labour
17 Newbury Conservative
18 Yeovil Alliance
19 Pudsey Conservative
20 Ross, Cromarty and Skye Alliance

See also


Notes


  1. Results for the Liberals only. The SDP did not contest
  2. Includes boundary change—so this is a nominal figure.
  3. Includes official Liberal candidates who were not given national Alliance endorsement in three constituencies: Liverpool Broadgreen, Hackney South and Shoreditch, and Hammersmith.
  4. The SDP–Liberal Alliance vote is compared with the Liberal Party vote in the 1979 election.
  5. The Independent Unionist elected in the 1979 election defended and held his seat for the Ulster Popular Unionist Party. The United Ulster Unionist Party dissolved and its sole MP did not re-stand.
  6. The Independent Republican elected in the 1979 election died in 1981. In the ensuring by-election the seat was won by Bobby Sands, an Anti-H-Block/Armagh Political Prisoner who then died and was succeeded by an Anti-H-Block Proxy Political Prisoner candidate Owen Carron. He defended and lost his seat standing for Sinn Féin who contested seats in Northern Ireland for the first time since 1959.
  7. This election was fought under revised boundaries. The changes reflect those comparing to the notional results on the new boundaries. One significant change was the increase in the number of seats allocated to Northern Ireland from 12 to 17.
  8. Benn did not serve during his Viscountcy between 1961 and 1963.

References


  1. "Baroness Margaret Thatcher", gov.uk, retrieved 2 July 2018
  2. "1983: Thatcher triumphs again", BBC News, 5 April 2005, retrieved 22 March 2015
  3. Vaidyanathan, Rajini (4 March 2010), "Michael Foot: What did the 'longest suicide note' say?", BBC News, retrieved 22 March 2015
  4. Election 1983  Part 1 on YouTube
  5. Julian Haviland (1983). "The June 1983 Election Campaign:Conservative lead was never challenged". The Times Guide to the House of Commons June 1983. London: Times Books Ltd. p. 23. ISBN 0-7230-0255-X.
  6. Parkhouse, Geoffrey (27 April 1983). "Go for June election, agents urge Thatcher". The Glasgow Herald. p. 1. Retrieved 11 July 2020.
  7. White, Michael (11 April 2005), "Michael White on 35 years of covering elections", The Guardian, retrieved 23 June 2018
  8. Elected as a Labour MP
  9. Elected as a Conservative Party
  10. Elected as a Labour MP
  11. Elected as a Labour MP
  12. Elected as a Labour MP
  13. Elected as a Labour MP
  14. Elected as a Labour MP
  15. Elected as a Labour MP
  16. Elected as a Labour MP
  17. Elected as a Labour MP
  18. Elected as a Labour MP
  19. Elected as a Labour MP
  20. Elected as a Labour MP
  21. Elected as a Labour MP
  22. Elected as a Labour MP
  23. Elected as a Labour MP
  24. Elected as a Labour MP
  25. Elected as a Labour MP
  26. Elected as a Labour MP
  27. Elected as a Labour MP
  28. Elected as a Labour MP
  29. Elected as a Labour MP
  30. Elected as a Labour MP
  31. Elected as a Labour MP
  32. Elected as a Labour MP
  33. Elected as a SDLP MP

Further reading


  • Butler, David E.; et al. (1984), The British General Election of 1983, the standard scholarly studyCS1 maint: postscript (link)
  • Craig, F. W. S. (1989), British Electoral Facts: 1832–1987, Dartmouth: Gower, ISBN 0900178302
  • Clarke, Harold D.; Mishler, William; Whiteley, Paul (1990), "Recapturing the Falklands: models of Conservative popularity, 1979–83", British Journal of Political Science, 20 (1): 63–81, doi:10.1017/S0007123400005706

Manifestos