1988 Mexican general election


General elections were held in Mexico on July 6, 1988.[1]

1988 Mexican general election

 1982 July 6, 1988 1994 
 
Nominee Carlos Salinas de Gortari Cuauhtémoc Cárdenas Manuel Clouthier
Party PRI FDN PAN
Home state Mexico City Michoacán Sinaloa
States carried 27 4 + D.F. -
Popular vote 9,687,926 5,929,585 3,208,584
Percentage 50.4% 31.1% 17.1%

States won by the presidential candidates (green for Salinas and yellow for Cárdenas)

President before election

Miguel de la Madrid
PRI

Elected President

Carlos Salinas de Gortari
PRI

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Carlos Salinas de Gortari was declared the winner, with the Ministry of Interior saying he had received 50.7% of the vote. It was the lowest for a winning candidate since direct elections were introduced for the presidency in 1917.[2] In the Chamber of Deputies election, the Institutional Revolutionary Party won 260 of the 500 seats,[3] as well as winning 60 of the 64 seats in the Senate election.[4] Voter turnout was said to be 51.6% in the presidential election, 49.7% for the Senate elections and 49.4% for the Chamber election.[5] This was the first time that a parallel vote tabulation was implemented in Mexico, the results were informed by telephone from the electoral districts to the secretariat of the Interior. During the parallel vote tabulation, the secretary of the interior said that the telephone network was saturated, characterizing it as "a breakdown of the system."[6] Former president Miguel de la Madrid later admitted that this "breakdown" was a fabrication.[7] One observer said, "For the ordinary citizen, it was not the network but the Mexican political system that had crashed."[8] Although early results of the parallel vote tabulation had indicated Cuauhtemoc Cárdenas was winning, when the official results were announced, Salinas was said to have eked out a narrow victory.

Elections rigged


Years later, former president Miguel de la Madrid admitted in an autobiography that there was not yet any official vote count when the PRI declared Salinas as the winner. In 1991, the ruling PRI and the opposition PAN approved a motion to burn all the ballots, therefore removing all evidence of the fraud.[7] A 2019 study in the American Political Science Review found "evidence of blatant alterations" in approximately one third of the tallies in the election.[9]

Results


President

Candidate Party Votes %
Carlos Salinas de GortariInstitutional Revolutionary Party9,641,32950.36
Cuauhtémoc CárdenasNational Democratic Front5,911,13331.12
Manuel ClouthierNational Action Party3,267,15917.07
Gumersindo Magaña NegreteMexican Democratic Party199,4841.04
Rosario YbarraRevolutionary Workers' Party80,0520.42
Unregistered45,8410.24
Invalid/blank votes
Total19,145,012100
Registered voters/turnout38,074,926
Source: CEDE
By state
State Salinas Cárdenas Clouthier Magaña Ibarra Unregistered
Aguascalientes84,80031,45247,9974,07348889
Baja California151,739152,203100,9513,3653,9491,746
Baja California Sur46,26722,02816,273410536129
Campeche82,29318,92014,3643671630
Chiapas591,78642,32622,319889719156
Chihuahua284,89634,858199,3341,3911,034482
Coahuila178,14796,89650,3499594641,424
Colima46,54934,77814,4041,0205650
Distrito Federal791,5311,400,148639,08122,85521,39029,164
Durango226,82267,08160,5468131,1840
Guanajuato319,798159,751217,42027,6031,66080
Guerrero309,202182,76612,4504,3841,887108
Hidalgo273,041118,64324,6383,8301,170571
Jalisco508,407283,240367,35029,8573,5831,810
México694,4511,196,728380,78436,05417,5115,951
Michoacán142,700392,05163,18812,9721,5052,483
Morelos93,869160,37920,6991,8541,4070
Nayarit116,07975,19911,7311,466409330
Nuevo León507,52426,941166,9151,5111,2650
Oaxaca400,833189,91929,1112,9775,205110
Puebla781,085192,825107,7186,0823,631317
Querétaro150,78337,63346,2512,7596320
Quintana Roo61,97322,6829,13829814190
San Luis Potosí259,62533,49780,4736,12067231
Sinaloa317,029104,517200,0661,2701,0080
Sonora281,46440,93785,5791,1171,2890
Tabasco199,16653,40614,0781,12625246
Tamaulipas279,041141,54746,5892,050836246
Tlaxcala110,78057,03410,8184,6537150
Veracruz948,971470,53478,98213,3554,191224
Yucatán206,3754,96495,9501761920
Zacatecas194,30365,25031,6131,828399257
Total9,641,3295,911,1333,267,159199,48480,05245,841
Source: CEDE

Senate

Party Votes % Seats +/-
Institutional Revolutionary Party9,263,81050.860-3
National Action Party3,293,46018.100
Party of the Cardenist Front of National Reconstruction1,727,3769.54+3
Popular Socialist Party1,702,2039.3
Authentic Party of the Mexican Revolution1,154,8116.3
Mexican Socialist Party770,6594.2
Mexican Democratic Party223,6311.2
Revolutionary Workers' Party76,1350.400
Non-registered candidates13,2220.100
Invalid/blank votes689,542
Total18,915,722100640
Source: Nohlen

Chamber of Deputies

Party Votes % Seats +/-
Institutional Revolutionary Party9,276,93451.0260-32
National Action Party3,276,82418.0101+63
Party of the Cardenist Front of National Reconstruction¹1,704,5329.438New
Popular Socialist Party¹1,673,8639.237+26
Authentic Party of the Mexican Revolution¹1,124,5756.230+19
Mexican Socialist Party¹810,3724.5180
Mexican Democratic Party244,4581.30-12
Revolutionary Workers' Party88,6370.50-6
National Democratic Front15New
Invalid/blank votes620,220
Total18,820,415100500+100
Source: Nohlen

¹ Several parties were part of the National Democratic Front alliance, with some candidates running separately under the name "Coalition".[3]

References


  1. Nohlen, D (2005) Elections in the Americas: A data handbook, Volume I, p453 ISBN 978-0-19-928357-6
  2. Nohlen, pp471-474
  3. Nohlen, p469
  4. Nohlen, p470
  5. Nohlen, p454
  6. quoted in Enrique Krauze, Mexico: Biography of Power. New York: HarperCollins 1997, p. 770.
  7. Ex-President in Mexico Casts New Light on Rigged 1988 Election New York Times, 9 March 2004
  8. Krauze, Mexico: Biography of Power, p. 770.
  9. Cantú, Francisco (2019). "The Fingerprints of Fraud: Evidence from Mexico's 1988 Presidential Election". American Political Science Review. 113 (3): 710–726. doi:10.1017/S0003055419000285. ISSN 0003-0554.