General elections were held in Mexico on July 6, 1988.
1988 Mexican general election
States won by the presidential candidates (green for Salinas and yellow for Cárdenas)
Carlos Salinas de Gortari was declared the winner, with the Ministry of Interior saying he had received 50.7% of the vote. It was the lowest for a winning candidate since direct elections were introduced for the presidency in 1917. In the Chamber of Deputies election, the Institutional Revolutionary Party won 260 of the 500 seats, as well as winning 60 of the 64 seats in the Senate election. Voter turnout was said to be 51.6% in the presidential election, 49.7% for the Senate elections and 49.4% for the Chamber election. This was the first time that a parallel vote tabulation was implemented in Mexico, the results were informed by telephone from the electoral districts to the secretariat of the Interior. During the parallel vote tabulation, the secretary of the interior said that the telephone network was saturated, characterizing it as "a breakdown of the system." Former president Miguel de la Madrid later admitted that this "breakdown" was a fabrication. One observer said, "For the ordinary citizen, it was not the network but the Mexican political system that had crashed." Although early results of the parallel vote tabulation had indicated Cuauhtemoc Cárdenas was winning, when the official results were announced, Salinas was said to have eked out a narrow victory.
Years later, former president Miguel de la Madrid admitted in an autobiography that there was not yet any official vote count when the PRI declared Salinas as the winner. In 1991, the ruling PRI and the opposition PAN approved a motion to burn all the ballots, therefore removing all evidence of the fraud. A 2019 study in the American Political Science Review found "evidence of blatant alterations" in approximately one third of the tallies in the election.
|Carlos Salinas de Gortari||Institutional Revolutionary Party||9,641,329||50.36|
|Cuauhtémoc Cárdenas||National Democratic Front||5,911,133||31.12|
|Manuel Clouthier||National Action Party||3,267,159||17.07|
|Gumersindo Magaña Negrete||Mexican Democratic Party||199,484||1.04|
|Rosario Ybarra||Revolutionary Workers' Party||80,052||0.42|
|Baja California Sur||46,267||22,028||16,273||410||536||129|
|San Luis Potosí||259,625||33,497||80,473||6,120||672||31|
|Institutional Revolutionary Party||9,263,810||50.8||60||-3|
|National Action Party||3,293,460||18.1||0||0|
|Party of the Cardenist Front of National Reconstruction||1,727,376||9.5||4||+3|
|Popular Socialist Party||1,702,203||9.3|
|Authentic Party of the Mexican Revolution||1,154,811||6.3|
|Mexican Socialist Party||770,659||4.2|
|Mexican Democratic Party||223,631||1.2|
|Revolutionary Workers' Party||76,135||0.4||0||0|
Chamber of Deputies
|Institutional Revolutionary Party||9,276,934||51.0||260||-32|
|National Action Party||3,276,824||18.0||101||+63|
|Party of the Cardenist Front of National Reconstruction¹||1,704,532||9.4||38||New|
|Popular Socialist Party¹||1,673,863||9.2||37||+26|
|Authentic Party of the Mexican Revolution¹||1,124,575||6.2||30||+19|
|Mexican Socialist Party¹||810,372||4.5||18||0|
|Mexican Democratic Party||244,458||1.3||0||-12|
|Revolutionary Workers' Party||88,637||0.5||0||-6|
|National Democratic Front||–||–||15||New|
¹ Several parties were part of the National Democratic Front alliance, with some candidates running separately under the name "Coalition".
- Nohlen, D (2005) Elections in the Americas: A data handbook, Volume I, p453 ISBN 978-0-19-928357-6
- Nohlen, pp471-474
- Nohlen, p469
- Nohlen, p470
- Nohlen, p454
- quoted in Enrique Krauze, Mexico: Biography of Power. New York: HarperCollins 1997, p. 770.
- Ex-President in Mexico Casts New Light on Rigged 1988 Election New York Times, 9 March 2004
- Krauze, Mexico: Biography of Power, p. 770.
- Cantú, Francisco (2019). "The Fingerprints of Fraud: Evidence from Mexico's 1988 Presidential Election". American Political Science Review. 113 (3): 710–726. doi:10.1017/S0003055419000285. ISSN 0003-0554.