1992 Kenyan general election


General elections were held in Kenya on 29 December 1992. Voters elected the President, and members of the National Assembly. They were the first multi-party general elections in Kenya since independence and the first to feature a direct vote for the President, who had, in 1964, been elected by the National Assembly, and, following a 1969 constitutional amendment, been automatically declared winner of non-held popular elections, held alongside parliamentary elections, in 1969, 1974, 1979, 1983, and 1988.

1992 Kenyan general election

 1988 29 December 1992 (1992-12-29) 1997 
Presidential election
 
Nominee Daniel arap Moi Kenneth Matiba
Party KANU FORD–Asili
Popular vote 1,962,866 1,404,266
Percentage 36.35% 26.00%

 
Nominee Mwai Kibaki Jaramogi Oginga Odinga
Party Democratic FORD-K
Popular vote 1,050,617 944,197
Percentage 19.45% 17.48%

President before election

Daniel arap Moi
Kenya African National Union

Elected President

Daniel arap Moi
KANU

Parliamentary election

Party Leader % Seats
KANU Daniel Arap Moi 100
FORD–Asili Kenneth Matiba 31
Democratic Mwai Kibaki 23
FORD–Kenya Jaramogi Oginga Odinga 31
KNC Chibule wa Tsuma 1
PICK John Harun Mwau 1
KSC George Anyona 1
This lists parties that won seats. See the complete results below.
Speaker of the National Assembly before Speaker of the National Assembly after
Jonathan Kimetet arap Ng'eno
KANU
Francis ole Kaparo
KANU

The results were marred by allegations of large-scale intimidation of opponents, harassment of election officials, and ballot-box stuffing, as well as targeted ethnic violence in the Rift Valley Province. Human Rights Watch accused several prominent Kenyan politicians, including President Daniel arap Moi and then-VP George Saitoti of inciting and co-ordinating the violence.[1] Voter turnout was 69.4%.[2][3]

Background


In 1991, Kenya transitioned to a multiparty political system after 26 years of single-party rule under KANU. On 28 October 1992, president Moi dissolved parliament, five months before the end of his term. As a result, preparations began for all elective seats in parliament as well as the president. The elections were scheduled to take place on 7 December 1992, but delays led to its postponement to 29 December the same year.

Results


President

CandidatePartyVotes%
Daniel arap MoiKenya African National Union1,962,86636.35
Kenneth MatibaFORD–Asili1,404,26626.00
Mwai KibakiDemocratic Party1,050,61719.45
Jaramogi Oginga OdingaFORD–Kenya944,19717.48
George AnyonaKenya Social Congress14,2730.26
Chibule wa TsumaKenya National Congress10,2210.19
John Harun MwauParty of Independent Candidates of Kenya8,1180.15
David Mukaru Ng'ang'aKenya National Democratic Alliance5,7660.11
Total5,400,324100.00
Source: African Elections Database

By province

Province Moi Matiba Kibaki Odinga Others Total
Votes % Votes % Votes % Votes % Votes %
Central21,9182.1630,19460.4373,14735.810,6681.06,9450.71,042,872
Coast188,29662.133,39911.032,20110.642,79614.16,6532.2303,345
Eastern290,37237.079,43610.1392,48150.013,6731.78,8191.1784,781
North Eastern46,42074.87,18811.63,2595.35,0848.2730.162,024
Nairobi62,41016.6165,55344.169,71518.675,88820.21,9440.5375,510
Nyanza117,55415.210,2991.351,9986.7581,49075.49,8071.3771,148
Rift Valley981,48871.5214,72715.698,3027.275,4655.53,5350.31,373,517
Western219,18739.3214,06038.414,4042.698,82217.710,8461.9557,319
Total1,927,64536.61,354,85625.71,035,50719.6903,88617.148,6220.95,270,516
Source: Nohlen et al.

National Assembly

Following the elections, Moi nominated a further 12 KANU members to the National Assembly.[4]

PartySeats
Kenya African National Union100
FORD–Asili31
Democratic Party23
FORD–Kenya31
Kenya National Congress1
Party of Independent Candidates of Kenya1
Kenya Social Congress1
Kenya National Democratic Alliance0
Social Democratic Party0
Appointed members12
Total200
Source: Nohlen et al.

Aftermath


In the aftermath of the election, Kenya suffered an economic crisis propagated by ethnic violence as the president was accused of rigging electoral results to retain power.[5] In the next five years, many political alliances were formed in preparation for the next elections. In 1994, Jaramogi Oginga Odinga died and several coalitions joined his FORD Kenya party to form a new party called United National Democratic Alliance. However, this party was plagued with disagreements. In 1996, KANU revised the constitution to allow Moi to remain president for another term.

In 1993 Kenneth Matiba filed a petition against the election results. However, his failure to personally sign the petition resulted in the petition being struck out by Justice Riaga Omolo. Matiba, was physically incapacitated and had given his wife power of attorney. In 2012, Justice Omolo was declared unfit to serve in the judiciary by the Judges and Magistrates Vetting Board over this decision.[6]

References


  1. Human Rights Watch (1993), Divide and Rule: State Sponsored Ethnic Violence in Kenya
  2. Elections held in 1992 Inter-Parliamentary Union
  3. Dieter Nohlen, Michael Krennerich & Bernhard Thibaut (1999) Elections in Africa: A data handbook, p486 ISBN 0-19-829645-2
  4. Elections in Kenya African Elections Database
  5. Keith., Kyle (1999). Politics of the independence of Kenya. Macmillan. ISBN 978-0333720080. OCLC 795968156.
  6. Why this election may be won in courts The Star, 12 January 2013