1992 Romanian general election


General elections were held in Romania on 27 September 1992, with a second round of the presidential election on 11 October.[1] They were the first held after the adoption of a permanent constitution via a referendum held the previous winter.

1992 Romanian general election

 1990
1996 
Presidential election
27 September 1992 (first round)
11 October 1992 (second round)
Turnout76.3% (first round)
73.2% (second round)
 
Nominee Ion Iliescu Emil Constantinescu
Party FDSN PNŢ-CD
Alliance CDR
Popular vote 7,393,429 4,641,207
Percentage 61.43% 38.57%

President before election

Ion Iliescu
FDSN

Elected President

Ion Iliescu
FDSN

Parliamentary election

27 September 1992

All 143 seats in the Senate
All 341 seats in the Chamber of Deputies
Party Leader % Seats ±
Chamber of Deputies
FDSN Ion Iliescu 27.74 117 New
CDR Emil Constantinescu 20.04 82 +31
FSN Petre Roman 10.17 43 -220
PUNR Gheorghe Funar 7.72 30 +21
UDMR Géza Domokos 7.47 27 -2
PRM Corneliu Vadim Tudor 3.89 16 New
PSM Ilie Verdeț 3.03 13 New
Minority parties 1.36 13 +2
Senate
FDSN Ion Iliescu 28.31 49 New
CDR Emil Constantinescu 20.16 34 +22
FSN Petre Roman 10.38 18 -73
PUNR Gheorghe Funar 8.12 14 +12
UDMR Géza Domokos 7.60 12 0
PRM Corneliu Vadim Tudor 3.85 6 New
PDAR Victor Surdu 3.28 5 +5
PSM Ilie Verdeț 3.18 5 New
This lists parties that won seats. See the complete results below.
Prime Minister before Prime Minister-designate
Theodor Stolojan
FSN
Nicolae Văcăroiu
FDSN

Incumbent Ion Iliescu led the field in the first round, but was forced into a runoff with Emil Constantinescu, candidate of the oppositional Romanian Democratic Convention (CDR). Constantinescu ran on a quicker transition to a market economy and purging remaining Communist influence from the government. He benefited from a marked downturn in Iliescu's popularity tied to both high unemployment and concerns that Iliescu was wavering in his commitment to democracy.[2][3]

Despite this, opinion polls ahead of the runoff suggested that Iliescu was favoured for a second full term. Not only was it believed that his 16-point first-round lead was too large for Constantinescu to overcome, but most of the minor candidates were expected to throw their support to Iliescu.[4] In the end, Iliescu was reelected with 61 percent of the vote.

In the parliamentary election, Iliescu's Democratic National Salvation Front (FDSN), which had split off from the National Salvation Front (FSN) earlier in the year, emerged as the largest party in Parliament, winning 117 of the 341 seats in the Chamber of Deputies and 49 of the 143 seats in the Senate.

Presidential candidates


Participating candidates

Name Lifespan Public Administration Experience Affiliation and endorsements Alma mater and profession Candidacy
Announcement dates

Ion Iliescu
Born: March 3, 1930
(age 62)
Oltenița, Călărași County
President of Romania (1989–election day)
President of Water Surfaces Management Council (1979–1984)
Member of the State Council (full member: 1979–1980, observative: 1974–1979)
President of Iași County Council (1974–1979)
Vice-President of Timiș County Council (1971–1974)
Minister of Youth (1967–1971)
Deputy (1957–1961, 1965–1973, 1975–1985)
Former presidential election:
1990: 85.1% (winner)
Affiliation: FDSN Energy Institute, Moscow State University (1954)

fluid mechanics engineer,
publishing house manager

Emil Constantinescu
Born: November 19, 1939
(age 52)
Tighina (today: de jure, Republic of Moldova; de facto Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic)
Rector of University of Bucharest (1992–election day) Affiliation: CDR Faculty of Law, University of Bucharest (1960)
Faculty of Geology, University of Bucharest (1966)

geology professor

Gheorghe Funar
Born: September 29, 1949
(age 42)
Sânnicolau Mare, Timiș County
Mayor of Cluj-Napoca (1992–election day) Affiliation: PUNR Faculty of Economics and Business Management, Babeș-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca (unknown year)

economist

Caius Traian Dragomir
Born: July 16, 1939
(age 53)
Slatina, Olt County
State Secretary for Public Information with the Government of Romania (1991–election day) Affiliation: none
Endorsed by: FSN
Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest (1963)

physicist
poet

Mircea Druc
Born: July 25, 1941
(age 51)
Pociumbăuți, Rîșcani District, Republic of Moldova
Prime Minister of the Moldavian SSR (1990–1991) Affiliation: none
Endorsed by: MER
Faculty of History and Philology, Moldova State University, Chișinău (1960)
Faculty of Philology, Saint Petersburg State University (1964)

administrative sciences professor

Ioan Mânzatu
Born: August 11, 1932
(age 60)
Bobâlna, Cluj County
Vice-President of Romania (1990) Affiliation: Republican Party Faculty of Physics, Babeș-Bolyai University (unknown year)

physics professor

Withdrawn candidates

Name Lifespan Public Administration Experience Affiliation and endorsements Alma mater and profession Candidacy
Announcement dates

Ioan Lup
Born: unknown birthdate
unknown birthplace
Affiliation: PNȚ-CD unknown education

unknown
Intention: June 25, 1992[5]
Withdrawal: June 25, 1992[5]
Endorsed Ion Rațiu: June 25, 1992
Endorsed Emil Constantinescu: June 27, 1992

Nicu Stăncescu
Born: unknown birthdate
unknown birthplace
Affiliation: Party of Democratic Unity unknown education

unknown
Withdrawal: June 27, 1992[5]
Endorsed Emil Constantinescu: June 27, 1992

Sergiu Cunescu
Born: March 16, 1923
(age 69), Bucharest
Died: March 16, 2005, unknown location
Affiliation: PSDR Faculty of Electromagnetics, Politehnica University of Bucharest (unknown year)

combustion engine engineer
Withdrawal: June 27, 1992[5]
Endorsed Emil Constantinescu: June 27, 1992

Nicolae Manolescu
Born: November 27, 1939
(age 52)
Râmnicu Vâlcea, Vâlcea County
Affiliation: Civic Alliance Party Faculty of Philology, University of Bucharest (1962)

writer, book critic
Withdrawal: June 27, 1992[5]
Endorsed Emil Constantinescu: June 27, 1992

Ion Rațiu
Born: June 6, 1917
(age 75), Turda, Cluj County
Died: January 17, 2000, London
Chancellor at Romanian Embassy in UK (1940) Affiliation: PNȚ-CD Faculty of Law, Babeș-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca (1938)
Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge (1943)

lawyer, economist, journalist
Intention: June 25, 1992[5]
Withdrawal: June 27, 1992[6]
Endorsed Emil Constantinescu: June 27, 1992

Results


President

Presidential election - First round
Presidential election - Second round
Ion Iliescu's first round vote share by county
Emil Constantinescu's first round vote share by county
Gheorghe Funar's first round vote share by county

Gheorghe Funar and Ioan Mânzatu openly endorsed Ion Iliescu in the second round.

Candidate Party First round Second round
Votes % Votes %
Ion IliescuDemocratic National Salvation Front5,633,46547.37,393,42961.4
Emil ConstantinescuRomanian Democratic Convention3,717,00631.24,641,20738.6
Gheorghe FunarRomanian National Unity Party1,294,38810.9
Caius Traian DragomirNational Salvation Front564,6554.7
Ioan MânzatuRepublican Party362,4853.0
Mircea DrucIndependent326,8662.7
Invalid/blank votes597,565119,174
Total12,496,43010012,153,810100
Registered voters/turnout16,380,66376.316,597,50873.2
Source: Nohlen & Stöver

Parliament

Senate
Party Votes % Seats +/–
Democratic National Salvation Front3,091,22128.3149New
Romanian Democratic Convention[lower-alpha 1]2,204,02520.1634+22
National Salvation Front1,133,35510.3818–73
Romanian National Unity Party887,5978.1214+12
Democratic Alliance of Hungarians in Romania830,1937.60120
Greater Romania Party421,0423.856New
Romanian Democratic Agrarian Party359,0423.285+5
Socialist Party of Labour347,6583.185New
National Liberal Party290,8662.660–10
Ecological Movement of Romania231,4012.110–1
Republican Party205,9881.880
National Democratic Solidarity97,2120.890New
Romanian Socialist Democratic Party60,7080.550
New Liberal Party57,2130.520New
Party of Social Democratic Unity51,9870.470New
Liberal Union–Bratiănu48,2220.440
National Peasant Party43,3600.390New
Liberal Monarchist Party of Romania42,5610.380New
Party of the Roma40,9460.370New
Convention of Social Solidarity34,4910.310New
Democratic Cooperatist Party30,9380.280New
Party for the Honouring of the Heroes of the Revolution and National Salvation27,5130.250
Republican Party of Romanian Unity24,0090.210New
Traditional Social Democratic Party23,0680.210New
National Party of Free Producers from Romania20,4420.180New
General Union of Roma in Romania19,2450.170New
Free Democratic Union of the Roma of Romania18,5280.160
Christian Republican Party17,3320.150
Democratic Romanian Front 16–20.XII.1989 Timișoara16,6650.150New
Romanian Humanistic Party16,4840.150New
Movement for Romania13,9220.120New
Free Republican Party13,4010.120New
Christian National Democratic Party13,3560.120New
Independent National Peasant Christian Democratic Party12,5870.110New
Romanian Labour Party12,3440.110New
Romanian Renaissance and Independence Party12,2660.110New
Party of the Gypsies of Romania10,8110.090
Party of Free Change8,7200.070
Antitotalitarian Party 'Down the Nomenklatura'8,4460.070New
Independent Social Democratic Party8,1460.070New
National League of Expropriated of Romania6,2100.050New
Alliance of National Dignity5,6610.050New
United Democratic Convention4,9680.040New
Christian Democratic Union4,7380.040
Party Democratic Future of the Motherland4,1750.030
Romanian Party for the New Society3,5230.030
Party of Labour3,2560.020
Party of Social Justice (New Democracy) of the North West of Romania3,2470.020
Party of Social Justice3,0500.020
Social Democratic Party "Titel Petrescu|2,9930.020New
Democratic Party of Labour2,9330.020
Humanitarian Party of Peace2,2130.020New
Christian Democratic Party of the Revolution1,7430.010New
Party of the Democratic Union of Moldova1,7260.010New
Forum of Democracy and National Unity of Romania1,4130.010
Romanian Popular Democratic Realistic Revolutionary Party1,4100.010New
Party of Heroes Fallen for the Freedom of the Alive Heroes, Affected by the Barbarian Bullets9130.000New
Party of Small Owners and Free Initiative of Romania8050.000New
Party of the National Right6480.000New
Independent Democratic Party6090.000New
Democratic Forum of Germans5580.000
Party Movement 'Motherland's Shield'4930.000New
National Romanian Party3970.000
Democratic Alliance of the Roma Party2580.000New
Conservative Humanistic Party1380.000New
Independents52,3270.470–1
Invalid/blank votes1,554,725
Total12,496,430100143+25
Registered voters/turnout16,380,66376.29
Source: AEP
  1. Of the 34 seats won by the CDR, the PNȚ-CD won 21, the PAC 7, the PNL-CD 4, the PNL-AT 1, and the PSDR 1.
Chamber of Deputies
Party Votes % Seats +/–
Democratic National Salvation Front3,003,57327.74117New
Romanian Democratic Convention[lower-alpha 1]2,170,28920.0482+60
National Salvation Front1,101,42510.1743–220
Romanian National Unity Party836,5477.7230+21
Democratic Alliance of Hungarians in Romania809,6537.4727–2
Greater Romania Party422,1363.8916New
Socialist Party of Labour328,2833.0313New
Romanian Democratic Agrarian Party322,9902.980–9
National Liberal Party284,6782.620–29
Ecological Movement of Romania243,7402.250–8
Republican Party177,0561.630
Romanian Socialist Democratic Party94,1540.860–5
National-Democratic Solidarity78,6150.720New
New Liberal Party63,0980.580New
Liberal Union–Bratiănu54,6730.500–1
Party of the Roma52,1700.481New
Party of Social-Democratic Unity50,1140.460New
National Peasant Party48,0310.440New
Liberal Monarchist Party of Romania38,5420.350New
Convention of Social Solidarity35,2860.320New
Democratic Forum of Germans34,4710.3110
Democratic Cooperatist Party32,4460.290New
Free Democratic Union of the Roma of Romania31,0600.2800
National Party of Free Producers from Romania29,6880.270New
Party for the Honouring of the Heroes of the Revolution and National Salvation25,7810.2300
Republican Party of Romanians Unity23,4470.210New
Romanian Humanistic Party22,9080.210New
Traditional Social Democratic Party21,8000.200New
General Union of Roma in Romania21,7340.200New
Christian Republican Party18,6330.1700
Romanian Labour Party16,4390.150New
Community of the Lippovan Russians14,8610.1310
Independent National Peasant Christian Democratic Party14,8280.130New
Democratic Romanian Front 16–20.XII.1989 Timișoara14,7790.130New
Romanian Renaissance and Independence Party13,5730.120New
Free Republican Party13,3530.120New
Movement for Romania12,7080.110New
Party of Free Change12,3600.110–1
Independent Social Democratic Party11,4970.100New
Christian National Democratic Party11,4720.100New
Party of the Gypsies of Romania9,6790.0800
Hellenic Union of Romania8,9130.0810
United Democratic Convention8,8630.080New
Democratic Union of Turkish-Muslim Tatars7,6880.0710
Union of the Ukrainians of Romania7,6410.0710
Social Democratic Party "Constantin Titel Petrescu|7,1710.060New
Union of Armenians of Romania7,0440.0610
National League of Expropriated of Romania6,8860.060New
Alliance of National Dignity6,0640.050New
Party of the National Right5,6220.050New
Christian Democratic Union5,6050.0500
Democratic Union of Serbs and Carasovenians of Romania5,3060.0410
Romanian Party for the New Society5,2500.0400
Independent Democratic Party5,1400.040New
Democratic Union of Slovaks and Czechs of Romania4,6620.0410
Antitotalitarian Party 'Down with the Nomenklatura'4,6230.040New
Party Democratic Future of the Motherland4,3220.0300
Italian Community of Romania4,1110.031New
Democratic Party of Labour3,8880.030–1
Forum of Democracy and National Unity of Romania3,1800.0200
Party of Social Justice (New Democracy) of the North West of Romania3,0630.0200
Union of Poles of Romania2,9870.0210
Party 'Will of the People'2,7040.020New
Party of Justice and Social Democracy of Romania2,6870.020New
Party of Labour2,6230.0200
Turkish Muslim Democratic Union of Romania2,5690.021New
Party of Social Justice2,5250.0200
Party of the Democratic Union of Moldova2,3580.020New
National Romanian Party2,2010.0200
Bulgarian Union of Banat–Romania1,8860.0110
National Movement 'Motherland's Shield' Party1,7380.010New
Movement for European Integration1,3670.010New
Humanitarian Party of Peace1,1730.010New
Romanian Popular Democratic Realistic Revolutionary Party1,1260.010New
Christian Democratic Party of the Revolution1,0750.000New
Party of Small Owners and Free Initiative of Romania6510.000New
Union of Croatians of Romania2170.000New
Conservative Humanistic Party1010.000New
'Republican Tribune' Party480.000New
Independents57,8550.530–1
Invalid/blank votes1,645,820
Total12,496,430100341–54
Registered voters/turnout16,380,66376.29
Source: AEP
  1. Of the 82 seats won by the CDR, the PNȚ-CD won 41, the PAC 13, the PNL-AT 11, the PSDR 10, the PER 4, and the PNL-CD 3.

References


  1. Nohlen, Dieter; Stöver, Philip (2010). Elections in Europe: A data handbook. Baden-Baden, Germany: Nomos. p. 1591. ISBN 978-3-8329-5609-7. OCLC 617565273.
  2. "Romanians Vote but Runoff Is Expected". The New York Times. 28 September 1992.
  3. "Romanian Vote Inconclusive; Runoff Planned Next Sunday". The New York Times. 6 October 1992.
  4. "President Favored In Romanian Runoff Today". The New York Times. 11 October 1992.
  5. Pădurean, Claudiu (18 January 2017). "Marea greșeală a lui Corneliu Coposu: A împiedicat candidatura lui Ion Rațiu la Președinția României, din partea Convenției" [The big mistake of Corneliu Coposu: He obstructed Ion Rațiu's candidacy for the Presidency of Romania, from the Convention]. România Liberă (in Romanian). Archived from the original on 19 January 2017. Retrieved 31 August 2020.
  6. Pop, Alina (15 January 2015). "Trădare sau democrație? Secretele refuielilor politice dintre foștii mari lideri țărăniști și bunii prieteni Ion Rațiu și Corneliu Coposu" [Treason or democracy? The secrets of the political feuds between the former great peasant leaders and good friends Ion Rațiu and Corneliu Coposu]. Adevărul (in Romanian). Archived from the original on 16 April 2015. Retrieved 31 August 2020.