1994 Hungarian parliamentary election

Parliamentary elections were held in Hungary on 8 May 1994, with a second round of voting in 174 of the 176 single member constituencies on 29 May.[1][2] They resulted in the return to power of the Hungarian Socialist Party, the former Communist party, under the leadership of Gyula Horn, who became Prime Minister. The Socialists achieved a remarkable revival, winning an overall majority of 209 seats out of 386, up from 33 in 1990.

1994 Hungarian parliamentary election

 1990 8 May 1994 (first round)
29 May 1994 (second round)
1998 

All 386 seats to the Országgyűlés
194 seats needed for a majority
Turnout68.92% (first round)
55.12% (second round)
  First party Second party Third party
 
Leader Gyula Horn Gábor Kuncze Péter Boross
Party MSZP SZDSZ MDF
Leader since 27 May 1990 [lower-alpha 1] 12 December 1993[lower-alpha 2]
Last election 33 seats, 10.89% 94 seats, 21.40% 164 seats, 24.72%
Seats won
Seat change 176 25 126
1R vote and % 1,689,081 (31.3%) 1,005,766 (18.6%) 649,966 (12.0%)
2R vote and % 1,945,355 (45.4%) 1,219,472 (28.4%) 638,866 (14.9%)
Party vote 1,781,867 1,066,074 633,957
 % and swing 32.99% 22.10 pp 19.74% 1.66 pp 11.74% 12.98 pp

  Fourth party Fifth party Sixth party
 
Leader József Torgyán László Surján Viktor Orbán
Party FKGP KDNP Fidesz
Leader since 26 April 1991 27 May 1990 18 April 1993
Last election 44 seats, 11.74% 21 seats, 6.46% 22 seats, 8.95%
Seats won
Seat change 18 1 2
1R vote and % 425,482 (7.9%) 397,887 (7.4%) 416,143 (7.7%)
2R vote and % 252,405 (5.9%) 126,616 (3.0%) 29,391 (0.7%)
Party vote 476,416 379,573 379,295
 % and swing 8.82% 2.92 pp 7.03% 0.57 pp 7.02% 1.93 pp

Results of the election. A darker shade indicates a higher vote share. Proportional list results are displayed in the top left.

Prime Minister before election

Péter Boross
MDF

Elected Prime Minister

Gyula Horn
MSZP

The governing Hungarian Democratic Forum was severely defeated, falling from 165 seats to 38 for third place. It was also a disappointment for the principal opposition party of the previous parliament, the Alliance of Free Democrats, which failed to capitalize on the government's unpopularity and lost seats. Poor economic performance, apparent government incompetence and a certain nostalgia for the social security of the communist era appear to be the main reasons for the result, together with significant reform of the Socialists' policies, with commitment to the expansion for the market economy and continued compensation for the victims of communism.

While the Socialists had enough seats to govern alone, Horn decided to form a coalition with the Free Democrats, giving him a two-thirds majority. This was partly to assuage public concerns inside and outside Hungary over an ex-Communist party with an absolute majority, and partly to get his reform package past his own party's left wing.