2000 Hong Kong legislative election


The 2000 Hong Kong Legislative Council election was held on 10 September 2000 for members of the 2nd Legislative Council (LegCo) of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR). The election returned 24 members from directly elected geographical constituencies, 6 seats from the Election Committee constituency and 30 members from functional constituencies, of which 9 uncontested.

2000 Hong Kong legislative election

 1998 10 September 2000 2004 

All 60 seats to the Legislative Council
31 seats needed for a majority
Registered3,055,378 (GC) 9.30%
Turnout1,331,080 (43.57%) 9.72pp
  First party Second party Third party
 
Leader Martin Lee Tsang Yok-sing James Tien
Party Democratic DAB Liberal
Alliance Pro-democracy Pro-Beijing Pro-Beijing
Leader's seat Hong Kong Island Kowloon West Commercial (First)
Last election 13 seats, 42.87% 10 seats, 25.23% 10 seats, 3.4%
Seats won 12 11 8
Seat change 1 2
Popular vote 417,873 374,780 24,858
Percentage 31.66% 28.40% 1.88%
Swing 11.21pp 3.17pp 1.52pp

  Fourth party Fifth party Sixth party
 
Leader Ambrose Lau Lau Chin-shek Emily Lau
Party Progressive Alliance CTU Frontier
Alliance Pro-Beijing Pro-democracy Pro-democracy
Leader's seat Election Committee Kowloon West New Territories East
Last election 5 seats Did not contest 3 seats, 10.03%
Seats won 4 2 2
Seat change 1
Popular vote 25,773 96,752 89,529
Percentage 1.95% 7.33% 6.78%
Swing N/A N/A 3.25pp

  Seventh party Eighth party Ninth party
 
Leader Frederick Fung Leung Yiu-chung Ng Ching-fai
Party ADPL NWSC New Forum
Alliance Pro-democracy Pro-democracy Pro-Beijing
Leader's seat Kowloon West New Territories West Election Committee
Last election 0 seat, 3.99% Did not contest New party
Seats won 1 1 1
Seat change 1 1
Popular vote 62,717 59,348 21,103
Percentage 4.75% 4.50% 1.60%
Swing 0.76pp N/A N/A

Elected candidates by each constituency

President before election

Rita Fan
Independent

Elected President

Rita Fan
Independent

The election saw the decline in turnout rate from 53.29 percent in 1998 to 43.57 percent. The Democratic Party was able to maintain the largest party status in the legislature by retaining 12 seats, despite its vote share fell sharply by eight percent, if including Lau Chin-shek from the Hong Kong Confederation of Trade Unions (CTU) running in the same ticket with Democrat James To in Kowloon West, from 42 percent in 1998 to 34 percent in 2000.[1]

In contrast, the pro-Beijing rival Democratic Alliance for the Betterment of Hong Kong (DAB) raised its vote share over two years by five percent, to 29.6 percent if including Tang Siu-tong from the Hong Kong Progressive Alliance (HKPA). As a result, the DAB won 11 seats, a sharp increase of three seats from the previous election, making it the second largest political party in the legislature, despite an alleged corruption scandal involving its vice-chairman Cheng Kai-nam at the peak of the campaign.[1] Cheng did not take his office and a by-election in December was won by a pro-democracy independent Audrey Eu.

The pro-democracy camp won 21 seats in total, of which 16 of those returned from the directly elected geographical constituencies, one seat more than the previous election which secured the one-thirds vote to veto any government's proposal of any constitutional amendment.

Change in composition


According to the Annex II of the Basic Law of Hong Kong, the number of the Election Committee constituency indirectly elected by the 800-member Election Committee would reduce from 10 seats to 6 seats, while the directly elected geographical constituency seats would increase from 20 to 24.[2] As a result, each geographical constituency except the New Territories East was added one extra seat.

After the two municipal councils, the Urban Council and Regional Council, were abolished in 1999, the two corresponding functional constituencies were also abolished and replaced by the Information Technology and Catering seats.

Parties and candidates


A total of 155 candidates representing ten political parties and candidates who were independents or not non-affiliated ran for the total number of 60 seats. 88 of whom ran in the 24 directly elected geographical constituencies, 57 for the 30 indirectly elected functional constituencies and 10 were nominated for the 6 Election Committee seats.[3]

  • The Democratic Party, chaired by Martin Lee, was the largest pro-democracy party holding 13 seats in the first Legislative Council term. Despite being perceived as anti-Beijing, the party's manifesto stated clear support for China's sovereignty over Hong Kong and Hong Kong's status as an "indivisible part of China." Nevertheless, the party was strongly identified with democratic principles, including "democracy, freedom, human rights and the rule of law." It believed in a rapid pace for Hong Kong's democratic development.[3] The party filled tickets in all five geographical constituencies besides its candidacies in the functional constituencies including Education, Social Welfare and Information Technology. It was also the first time the party deployed separate tickets in the New Territories West in hope of winning three seats by purchasing seats with remainder votes under the Hare quota system.
  • The Liberal Party, chaired by James Tien, was the party representing big-business interests. Its manifesto was "Energise Our Economy, Enrich Our Lives." Although its economic inclinations were the opposite of the Democratic Alliance for the Betterment of Hong Kong (DAB), it also had pro-Beijing sympathies like the latter.[3] After the defeat of former chairman Allen Lee in direct election in 1998, the party only filled two tickets in the geographical constituencies while its core members remained relying heavily on the business sectors of the functional constituencies.
  • The Democratic Alliance for the Betterment of Hong Kong (DAB), chaired by Tsang Yok-sing, was the pro-Beijing party representing the Beijing interests in Hong Kong. It called for gradual and step-by step progress towards democratisation and supported for social welfare improvements, including greater spending on education, housing, employee retraining which had given it strong grassroots supports.[3] Holding 10 seats in the first Legislative Council term, the DAB won five directly elected seats in the 1998 election, taking advantages from the proportional representation system installed by Beijing.
  • The Hong Kong Progressive Alliance (HKPA), chaired by Ambrose Lau, was a small pro-Beijing party which had a pro-business stance which assuring another voting block support of Beijing interests. It heavily relied on the seats in the indirectly elected functional constituencies and Election Committee seats. In the election, the party filled a ticket in New Territories East for the first time and a candidate with rural background Tang Siu-tong in the DAB ticket in New Territories West.
  • The Frontier, headed by Emily Lau was active on human rights and environmental issues and routinely criticised both Hong Kong and Beijing governments on matters involving individual rights and freedoms. The Frontier believed the Basic Law should be redrafted and advocated democracy and freedom in China and Hong Kong. The party had strong support in New Territories East where saw its two incumbents Emily Lau and Cyd Ho got elected. Ho ran in Hong Kong Island in the coming election, targeting retiring Citizens Party's Christine Loh's seat.
  • The Hong Kong Confederation of Trade Unions (CTU), presided by Lau Chin-shek, was a pro-democracy labour union. It had strong pro-grassroots and pro-labour inclination besides its pro-democracy stance. It had two incumbents Lau Chin-shek and Lee Cheuk-yan who ran as Democratic Party and The Frontier candidates respectively in the last election. After quitting the Democratic Party, Lau would run in the joint ticket with Democratic Party's James To in Kowloon West in the coming election.
  • The Neighbourhood and Worker's Service Centre (NWSC) had its sole legislator Leung Yiu-chung ran for his re-election in New Territories West. Largely pro-democracy and pro-grassroots, the NWSC had its strong base in public housing estates in Kwai Chung.
  • The New Century Forum, headed by Ng Ching-fai, was newly formed small party with a pro-middle class inclination. It had two members in the first Legislative Council term, Ng Ching-fai and Ma Fung-kwok, both were elected through the Election Committee, despite the two were running for re-election as nonpartisans. The party would also run in Hong Kong Island and New Territories East with tickets led by former civil servant David Lan and Law Cheung-kwok respectively.
  • The Hong Kong Association for Democracy and People's Livelihood (ADPL), chaired by Frederick Fung, was a major party before 1997 until it lost all its seat in the first Legislative Council election in 1998. It had a moderate pro-democracy stance and strong pro-grassroots inclination. It filled in one ticket in its strong base Kowloon West in the coming election with chairman Frederick Fung and vice-chairman Bruce Liu.
  • The April Fifth Action was a small socialist group in which "Longhair" Leung Kwok-hung was its most well-known figure. It called for radical political changes with a strong anti-government rhetoric. Leung Kwok-hung would be running in the New Territories East in the coming election.

Retiring incumbents


Ambrose Cheung, representing the Provisional Urban Council resigned from the Legislative Council as protest to the government's decision on abolishing the two municipal councils, Urban Council and Regional Council and their corresponding Legislative Council constituencies in 2000. No by-election was held due to the short period before the general election.

Constituency Departing incumbents Party
MedicalLeong Che-hung Independent
Health ServicesMichael Ho Mun-ka Democratic
LabourLee Kai-ming FLU
Chan Wing-chan DAB
Real Estate and ConstructionRonald Joseph Arculli Liberal
Import and ExportHui Cheung-ching Progressive Alliance
District Council (First)Ip Kwok-him DAB

General result


Before election:

20 1 39
Pro-democracy V. Pro-Beijing

Change in composition:

21 39
Pro-democracy Pro-Beijing
Overall Summary of the 10 September 2000 Legislative Council of Hong Kong election results
Parties and allegiances Geographical constituencies Functional constituencies ECC
seats
Total
seats
±
Votes % ±pp Seats Votes % ±pp Seats
Democratic Alliance for the Betterment of Hong Kong 374,780 28.40 3.17 7 1,493 1.68 1.30 3 1 11 2
Liberal Party 24,858 1.88 1.52 0 4,416 4.96 3.23 8 0 8 2
Hong Kong Progressive Alliance 25,773 1.95 N/A 1 133 0.15 0.41 1 2 4 1
New Century Forum 21,103 1.60 N/A 0 1 1 1
Pro-government individuals and others 14,534 1.10 0 30,571 34.34 13 2 15
Total for pro-Beijing camp 461,048 34.94 4.55 8 30,571 41.12 9.01 25 6 39 0
Democratic Party 417,873 31.66 11.21 9 40,624 45.63 17.44 3 12 0
Hong Kong Confederation of Trade Unions 96,752 7.33 N/A 2 2 0
The Frontier 89,529 6.78 3.25 2 2 0
Hong Kong Association for Democracy and People's Livelihood 62,717 4.75 0.75 1 1 1
Neighbourhood and Worker's Service Centre 59,348 4.50 N/A 1 1 0
April Fifth Action 18,235 1.38 N/A 0 0 0
Pro-democracy individuals and others 54,795 4.15 1 9,066 10.18 2 3
Total for pro-democracy camp 799,249 60.56 5.59 16 49.690 55.81 9.74 5 21 1
Non-partisan individuals and others 59,397 4.50 0 2,729 3.07 0 0
Total 1,319,694 100.00 24 89,032 100.00 30 6 60 0
Valid votes 1,319,694 99.14 0.22 89,032 96.66 1.31
Invalid votes 11,386 0.86 0.22 3,080 3.34 1.31
Votes cast / turnout 1,331,080 43.57 9.72 92,112 56.50 7.00
Registered voters 3,055,378 100.00 9.30 163,030 100.00 33.04
9 candidates in 9 functional constituencies were elected unopposed to the Legislative Council.

(Total votes added up by this reference)

Ring charts of the election results showing popular vote against seats won, coloured in green (Pro-democracy camp) and red (Pro-Beijing camp) on the left and the party colours on the right. Seats won in the election (outer ring) against number of votes (inner ring).

Vote summary

Popular vote
Democratic
31.66%
DAB
28.40%
CTU
7.33%
Frontier
6.78%
ADPL
4.75%
NWSC
4.50%
PA
1.95%
Liberal
1.88%
NCF
1.60%
AFA
1.38%
Independents
9.75%

Seat summary

Seats
Democratic
20.00%
DAB
18.33%
Liberal
13.33%
PA
6.67%
CTU
3.33%
Frontier
3.33%
ADPL
1.67%
NWSC
1.67%
NCF
1.67%
Independents
30.00%

Incumbents defeated

Four incumbents lost re-election

Party Name Constituency Remarks
LiberalEdward Ho Sing-tinArchitectural, Surveying and Planning
Ho Sai-chuElection Committee
DemocraticLee Wing-tatNew Territories West
Progressive AllianceFung Chi-kinFinancial Services
New ForumMa Fung-kwokElection Committee

Results breakdown


Geographical constituencies (24 seats)

Voting System: Closed party-list proportional representation with the largest remainder method and Hare Quota.

Hong Kong Island (香港島) (5 seats)
List No. Party/Allegiance Votes Received  % elected not elected
1   9,896 3.8   Tsang Kin-shing, Manuel Chan Tim-shing, Steve Chan Kwok-leung
2   6,967 2.7   Angel Leung On-kay
3 DAB 72,617 27.8 Cheng Kai-nam, Choy So-yuk Suen Kai-cheong, Christopher Chung Shu-kun, Yeung Wai-foon
4   14,534 5.6   Jennifer Chow Kit-bing
5 Independent 6,398 2.5   Paul Tse Wai-chun
6 New Forum 14,329 5.5   David Lan Hong-tsung, Fung Ho-keung, Chan Choi-hi, Regina Yeung Sum-yu
7 Frontier 25,988 10.0 Cyd Ho Sau-lan  
8   1,132 0.4   Andrew Shuen Pak-man
9   15,419 5.9   Fung Leung-lo
10   1,434 0.5   Allen Yung Chan-lung
11 Democratic 92,074 35.3 Martin Lee Chu-ming, Yeung Sum Kam Nai-wai, Joseph Lai Chi-keong, Cheng Lai-king
    260,788 100.0    
Kowloon West (九龍西) (4 seats)
List No. Party/Allegiance Votes Received  % elected not elected
1 ADPL 62,717 35.2 Frederick Fung Kin-kee Liu Sing-lee
2 DAB 41,942 23.5 Tsang Yok-sing Chung Kong-mo, Pun Kwok-wah, Wong Wai-chuen
3 Democratic/CTU 73,540 41.3 Lau Chin-shek, James To Kun-sun  
    178,199 100.0    
Kowloon East (九龍東) (4 seats)
List No. Party/Allegiance Votes Received  % elected not elected
1   9,805 4.3   Lam Hoi-shing
2 DAB 108,587 47.4 Chan Yuen-han, Chan Kam-lam Lam Man-fai, Angelis Chan Joy-kong
3 Democratic 103,863 45.3 Szeto Wah, Li Wah-ming Wu Chi-wai, Andrew To Kwan-hang
4   7,023 3.1   Shi Kai Biu, Lam Wai Yin
    229,278 100.0    
New Territories West (新界西) (6 seats)
List No. Party/Allegiance Votes Received  % elected not elected
1 Liberal 9,408 2.74   David Yeung Fuk-kwong
2 NWSC 59,348 17.27 Leung Yiu-chung  
3 Democratic 43,613 12.69 Albert Chan Wai-yip Cosmas Kwong Kwok-chuen
4 CTU 52,202 15.19 Lee Cheuk-yan  
5   3,274 0.95   Angela Man Yun-fei
6 DAB 101,629 29.58 Tam Yiu-chung, Tang Siu-tong Leung Che-cheung, Chau Chuen-heung, Chan Yau-hoi, Au Yeung Po-chun
7 Democratic 38,472 11.20 Ho Chun-yan Josephine Chan Shu-ying, Cheung Yuet-lan, Catherine Wong Lai-sheung
8 Democratic 35,648 10.38   Lee Wing-tat, Wong Bing-kuen
    343,594 100.00  
New Territories East (新界東) (5 seats)
List No. Party/Allegiance Votes Received  % elected not elected
1 Democratic 25,971 8.44 Wong Sing-chi Chow Wai-tung, Wong Leung-hi
2 DAB 66,943 21.75 Lau Kong-wah Wan Yuet-kau, Wong Mo-tai, Wan Chung-ping, Li Kwok-ying
3   7,945 2.58   Brian Kan Ping-chee
4 Progressive Alliance 8,835 2.87   Choy Kan-pui, Ling Man-hoi, Cheng Chun-wo, Ho Sau-mo
5 Frontier 63,541 20.64 Emily Lau Wai-hing Richard Tsoi Yiu-cheong
6 New Forum 6,774 2.20   Law Cheung-kwok
7 Democratic 49,242 16.00 Andrew Cheng Kar-foo Gary Fan Kwok-wai, Shirley Ho Suk-ping, Leung Wing-hung, Kwan Wing-yip
8   44,899 14.59 Andrew Wong Wang-fat  
9 Liberal 15,450 5.02   Lau Hing-kee, Leung Chi-wai, Susana Ho Shu-tee
10 April Fifth Action 18,235 5.92   Leung Kwok-hung
    307,835 100.00    

Functional Constituencies (30 seats)

Voting systems: Different voting systems apply to different functional constituencies, namely for the Heung Yee Kuk, Agriculture and Fisheries, Insurance and Transport, the preferential elimination system of voting; and for the remaining 24 FCs used the first-past-the-post voting system.[4]

Results of the Functional Constituencies
ConstituencyIncumbentResultCandidate(s)
Heung Yee Kuk Lau Wong-fat
(Liberal)
Incumbent hold Lau Wong-fat (Liberal)
uncontested
Agriculture and Fisheries Wong Yung-kan
(DAB)
Incumbent hold Wong Yung-kan (DAB)
uncontested
InsuranceBernard Charnwut ChanIncumbent hold Bernard Charnwut Chan
uncontested
TransportMiriam Lau Kin-yee
(Liberal)
Incumbent holdMiriam Lau Kin-yee (Liberal) 76.26%
Thomas Pang Cheung-wai (DAB) 23.74%
EducationCheung Man-kwong
(PTU/Democratic)
Incumbent holdCheung Man-kwong (PTU/Democratic) 86.29%
Lee Kit-kong 13.71%
LegalMargaret Ng Ngoi-yee
(Independent)
Incumbent holdMargaret Ng Ngoi-yee (Independent) 60.75%
Anthony Chow Wing-kin (Independent) 39.25%
AccountancyEric Li Ka-cheung
(Independent)
Incumbent holdEric Li Ka-cheung (Independent) 64.55%
Edward Chow Kwong-fai (Independent) 22.75%
Peter Chan Po-fun(Independent) 12.70%
MedicalLeong Che-hung
(Independent)
Incumbent retired
Independent gain
Lo Wing-lok (Independent) 39.96%
Dennis Lam Shun-chiu (Independent) 32.29%
Kwok Ka-ki (Independent) 19.20%
So Kai-ming (Independent) 8.55%
Health ServicesMichael Ho Mun-ka
(Democratic)
Incumbent retired
Independent gain
Michael Mak Kwok-fung (Independent) 43.60%
Thomas Wong Kwok-shing (Independent) 29.09%
Alice Tso Shing-yuk 27.31%
EngineeringRaymond Ho Chung-tai
Incumbent holdRaymond Ho Chung-tai 60.69%
Luk Wang-kwong 39.31%
Architectural, Surveying and PlanningEdward Ho Sing-tin (Liberal)Incumbent lost re-election
Independent gain
Kaizer Lau Ping-cheung 39.88%
Kenneth Law Kin-chung (Independent) 32.61%
Edward Ho Sing-tin (Liberal) 27.51%
Labour (3 seats)Lee Kai-ming
(Nonpartisan)
Incumbent retired
Nonpartisan gain
Li Fung-ying (Nonpartisan) 283
Leung Fu-wah (Nonpartisan) 259
Chan Kwok-keung (DAB) 226
Leung Suet-fong 102
Chan Wing-chan
(DAB)
Incumbent retired
Nonpartisan gain
Chan Kwok-keung
(DAB)
Incumbent hold
Social WelfareLaw Chi-kwong
(Democratic)
Incumbent holdLaw Chi-kwong (Democratic) 65.93%
Grace Leung Yuet-ming (Nonpartisan) 34.07%
Real Estate and ConstructionRonald Joseph Arculli
(Independent)
Incumbent retired
Independent gain
Abraham Shek Lai-him (Independent) 75.48%
Jimmy Tse Lai-leung (Independent) 24.52%
TourismHoward Young
(Liberal)
Incumbent holdHoward Young (Liberal) 45.07%
Joseph Tung Yao-chung (Nonpartisan) 32.40%
Francis Bagaman (Nonpartisan) 22.53%
Commercial (First)James Tien Pei-chun
(Liberal)
Incumbent holdJeffrey Lam Kin-fung (Liberal)
uncontested
Commercial (Second)Philip Wong Yu-hongIncumbent hold Philip Wong Yu-hong
uncontested
Industrial (First)Kenneth Ting Woo-shou
(Liberal)
Incumbent holdKenneth Ting Woo-shou (Liberal) 57.22%
Chan Siu-king (Nonpartisan) 42.78%
Industrial (Second)Lui Ming-wahIncumbent holdLui Ming-wah
uncontested
FinanceDavid Li Kwok-poIncumbent holdDavid Li Kwok-po 73.55%
Leo Kung Lin-cheng 26.45%
Financial ServicesFung Chi-kinIncumbent lost re-election
Nonpartisan gain
Wu King-cheong 53.47%
Fung Chi-kin (Progressive Alliance) 40.18%
Irene So Wai-yin 6.35%
Sports, Performing Arts, Culture and PublicationTimothy Fok Tsun-tingIncumbent holdTimothy Fok Tsun-ting
uncontested
Import and ExportHui Cheung-ching
(Progressive Alliance)
Incumbent holdHui Cheung-ching (Progressive Alliance)
uncontested
Textiles and GarmentSophie Lau Yau-fun
(Liberal)
Incumbent holdSophie Lau Yau-fun (Liberal)
uncontested
Wholesale and RetailSelina Chow Liang Shuk-yee
(Liberal)
Incumbent holdSelina Chow Liang Shuk-yee (Liberal) 75.40%
Lau Chi-wing 24.60%
Information TechnologySin Chung-kai
(Democratic)
Incumbent holdSin Chung-kai (Democratic) 73.69%
Kan Wing-kay 26.31%
CateringNew constituenciesTommy Cheung Yu-yan (Liberal) 53.59%
Leung Kwok-cheong 26.11%
David Ng Tak-leung (DAB) 20.30%
District CouncilIp Kwok-him (DAB) 57.39%
Cosmas Chiang Sai-cheong (Liberal) 42.61%

Election Committee (6 seats)

No.PartyCandidateVotes %
21 IndependentMa Fung-kwok37652.29
22 IndependentShiu Sin-por36050.07
23 IndependentNg Ching-fai40155.77
24 Progressive AllianceDavid Chu Yu-lin46464.53
25 DABYeung Yiu-chung49068.15
26 IndependentRita Fan Hsu Lai-tai65190.54
27 IndependentHo Ka-cheong11716.27
28 IndependentNg Leung-sing48367.18
29 Progressive AllianceAmbrose Lau Hon-chuen59482.61
30 LiberalHo Sai-chu37852.57

References