2012 Summer Olympics

The 2012 Summer Olympics (officially known as the Games of the XXX Olympiad[3] and commonly known as London 2012) was an international multi-sport event held from 27 July to 12 August 2012 in London, England, United Kingdom. The first event, the group stage in women's football, began on 25 July at the Millennium Stadium in Cardiff, followed by the opening ceremony on 27 July.[4][5] 10,768 athletes from 204 National Olympic Committees (NOCs) participated.[6]

Games of the XXX Olympiad
The basic shape of 2012 Olympics logo. Other color variants are shown below.
Host cityLondon, United Kingdom
MottoInspire a Generation
Nations204 (including IOA team)
Athletes10,768 (5,992 men, 4,776 women)
Events302 in 26 sports (39 disciplines)
Opening27 July
Closing12 August
Opened by
StadiumLondon Olympic Stadium
2012 Summer Paralympics

Following a bid headed by former Olympic champion Sebastian Coe and the incumbent Mayor of London Ken Livingstone, London was selected as the host city on 6 July 2005 during the 117th IOC Session in Singapore, defeating bids from Moscow, New York City, Madrid, and Paris.[7] London became the first city to host the modern Olympics three times,[8][9] having previously hosted the Summer Games in 1908 and in 1948.[10][11] Construction for the Games involved considerable redevelopment, with an emphasis on sustainability.[12] The main focus was a new 200-hectare (490-acre) Olympic Park, constructed on a former industrial site at Stratford, East London.[13] The Games also made use of venues that already existed before the bid.[14]

The United States topped the medal table, winning the most gold medals (46) and the highest number of medals overall (104); China finished second with a total of 91 medals (38 gold) and Great Britain came third with 65 medals overall (29 gold). Michael Phelps became the most decorated Olympic athlete of all time, winning his 22nd medal.[15] Saudi Arabia, Qatar, and Brunei entered female athletes for the first time, so that every currently eligible country has sent a female competitor to at least one Olympic Games.[16] Women's boxing was included for the first time, thus the Games became the first at which every sport had female competitors.[17][18][19]

The Games received general praise for their organisation, with the volunteers, the British military and public enthusiasm praised particularly highly.[20][21][22] The opening ceremony, directed by Danny Boyle, received widespread acclaim throughout the world, particular praise from the British public and a minority of widely ranging criticisms from some social media sites.[23][24] These were the final Olympic Games under the IOC presidency of Belgian Jacques Rogge, who was succeeded by German Thomas Bach the next year.