2016 Hong Kong legislative election

The 2016 Hong Kong Legislative Council election was held on 4 September 2016 for the 6th Legislative Council of Hong Kong (LegCo). A total of 70 members, 35 from geographical constituencies (GCs) and 35 from functional constituencies (FCs), were returned. The election came after the rejection of the 2016/2017 constitutional reform proposals which suggested the electoral method for the 2016 Legislative Council remains unchanged.

2016 Hong Kong legislative election

 2012 4 September 2016 2021 

All 70 seats to the Legislative Council
36 seats needed for a majority
Opinion polls
Registered3,779,085 (GC) 9.03%
Turnout2,202,283 (58.28%)[1] 5.23pp
  First party Second party Third party
Leader Starry Lee Emily Lau Andrew Leung
Party DAB Democratic BPA
Alliance Pro-Beijing Pan-democracy Pro-Beijing
Leader's seat District Council (Second) New Territories East
(lost seat)[n 1]
Industrial (First)
Last election 13 seats, 20.22% 6 seats, 13.65% Did not contest
Seats won 12 7 7
Seat change 1 1
Popular vote 361,617 199,876 49,745
Percentage 16.68% 9.22% 2.29%
Swing 3.54pp 4.43pp New party

  Fourth party Fifth party Sixth party
Leader Alan Leong Lam Shuk-yee Vincent Fang
Party Civic FTU Liberal
Alliance Pan-democracy Pro-Beijing Pro-Beijing
Leader's seat Kowloon East
(lost seat)[n 1]
Did not stand Retired from Wholesale & Retail
Last election 6 seats, 14.08% 6 seats, 7.06% 5 seats, 2.64%
Seats won 6 5 4
Seat change 1 1
Popular vote 207,855 169,854 21,500
Percentage 9.59% 7.83% 0.99%
Swing 4.49pp 0.77pp 1.70pp

  Seventh party Eighth party Ninth party
Leader Regina Ip Erica Yuen
and Avery Ng
Baggio Leung
Party NPP PP/LSD Youngspiration
Alliance Pro-Beijing Pan-democracy ALLinHK
Leader's seat Hong Kong Island Hong Kong Island
(defeated)[n 1]
New Territories East
Last election 2 seats, 3.76% 4 seats, 14.59% New party
Seats won 3 2 2
Seat change 1 1 2
Popular vote 167,589 156,019 81,422
Percentage 7.73% 7.20% 3.75%
Swing 3.97pp 7.39pp N/A

Elected candidates by each constituency

President before election

Jasper Tsang

Elected President

Andrew Leung

An unprecedented number of 2.2 million voters, 58 per cent of the registered electorate, turned out in wake of the 2014 pro-democracy Occupy movement often dubbed as the "Umbrella Revolution" with the localists emerged as a new political force behind the pro-Beijing and pan-democracy camps by winning six seats in the geographical constituencies and gaining nearly 20 per cent of the vote share.[2] Many new faces rose from the post-Occupy political forces got elected.[3] Demosisto's Nathan Law, a 23-year-old Occupy student leader became the youngest candidate to be elected in history along with his allies Lau Siu-lai and Eddie Chu.

Baggio Leung and Yau Wai-ching from the radical localist groups Youngspiration, and Cheng Chung-tai of Civic Passion, also won seats after they were allowed to enter the race following the government controversially disqualifying six localists for their advocacy of Hong Kong independence.[3] As a result, four pan-democrats lost their seats, namely, Neo Democrats' Gary Fan, as well as three veterans, Lee Cheuk-yan and Cyd Ho of the Labour Party and the Frederick Fung of the Association for Democracy and People's Livelihood.

Many veteran pro-Beijing incumbents, including the LegCo president Jasper Tsang, also Chan Kam-lam and Tam Yiu-chung of the Democratic Alliance for the Betterment and Progress of Hong Kong's (DAB) and Chan Yuen-han of the Hong Kong Federation of Trade Unions (FTU) decided to step down, while pan-democrat heavyweights, including Civic Party leader Alan Leong, Democratic Party chairwoman Emily Lau and veterans Albert Ho and Sin Chung-kai, as well as pro-Beijing Liberal Party honorary chairman James Tien, chose to stand as second candidate to get their party's newcomers elected. Young Democrat Kwong Chun-yu received the most votes by winning nearly 500,000 votes in the District Council (Second) "super seat".

Together with the six post-Occupy radicals and localists, the anti-establishment forces won 29 out of 70 seats; managed to retain the majority in the geographical constituencies to block the pro-establishment camp's attempt to amend the rule of procedures to curb radicals' filibustering, as well as the opposition's crucial one-thirds minority to maintain the veto power on government's constitutional reform proposals.


Electoral reform failure and Umbrella Revolution

The election comes after the rejection of constitutional reform proposals of the Leung Chun-ying administration in mid-2015 meant the electoral method for the Legislative Council (LegCo) in 2016 was unchanged.[4] On 31 August 2014, the National People's Congress Standing Committee (NPCSC) set limits for the 2016 Legislative Council and 2017 Chief Executive elections. While reaffirming the electoral method for the 2016 Legislative Council election remained unchanged, the 2014 NPCSC decision allowed the Chief Executive (CE) to be directly elected but "unpatriotic" candidates would have to be screened out by a Beijing-controlled nominating committee.[5] In response to the NPCSC decision, the student activists staged a class boycott which led into a months-long large-scale occupy movement as proposed by the Occupy Central, which was referred as the "Umbrella Revolution".[6][7]

The government proposals were overwhelmingly rejected in the Legislative Council following a failed walk-out by the pro-Beijing camp on 18 June 2015. In response, Chief Executive Leung Chun-ying urged the voters to "punish" the opposition democratic candidates by voting them out in the upcoming legislative election.[8]

Emergence of new political forces

The emergence of new political groups led by young activists began to influence the political landscape: Edward Leung of Hong Kong Indigenous, a pro-independence localist group, received a better-than expected result in the New Territories East by-election in February 2016 by taking more than 66,000 votes and gaining about 15 percent of the total votes. After the election, Edward Leung claimed localism had become the third most important power grouping in Hong Kong politics alongside the pan-democracy and pro-Beijing camps.[9] A day after the election, three localist groups, Wong Yuk-man's Proletariat Political Institute, Wong Yeung-tat's Civic Passion and Chin Wan's Hong Kong Resurgence Order, announced to run in the upcoming election.[10]

On 10 April 2016, six localist groups which emerged after the 2014 Umbrella Revolution, Youngspiration, Kowloon East Community, Tin Shui Wai New Force, Cheung Sha Wan Community Establishment Power, Tsz Wan Shan Constructive Power and Tuen Mun Community, formed an electoral alliance under the name "ALLinHK" planned to field candidates in four of the five geographical constituencies with the agenda to put forward a referendum on Hong Kong's self-determination, while Hong Kong Indigenous and another new pro-independence Hong Kong National Party also stated that they would run in the upcoming election.[11]

Also on 10 April 2016, the student leaders in the Umbrella Revolution, Joshua Wong, Oscar Lai and Agnes Chow of Scholarism and Nathan Law of the Hong Kong Federation of Students (HKFS) formed a new party called Demosistō and aimed to field candidates in Hong Kong Island and Kowloon East.[12] The new party calls for referendum on Hong Kong's future after 2047 when the one country, two systems is supposed to expire.[13]

Ronny Tong's Path of Democracy and Tik Chi-yuen's Third Side, the two new political groups which split from the Civic Party and Democratic Party respectively, seek a middle path between the pro-Beijing camp and pan-democracy camp on achieving democracy, with plans to field candidates in the geographical constituency election.

Political scientist Professor Ma Ngok believed the soaring number of political groups and candidates, which was the reflection of the increasing fragmentation of the pro-democracy camp, might split the pro-democracy votes.[14]

ThunderGo plan

In early 2016, Occupy Central co-founder Benny Tai, who was inspired by the electoral victory the Democratic Progressive Party received in the 2016 Taiwan legislative election, mapped out a "ThunderGo plan" for pan-democrats to grab half of the seats in the Legislative Council election to increase political leverage in future political reform. He suggests the anti-establishment forces to field no more than 23 lists if their goal was to win 23 seats in the geographical constituencies, six tickets for nine-seat New Territories West and New Territories East, four tickets for six-seat Hong Kong Island and Kowloon West, and three for five-seat Kowloon East respectively.[15] For the functional constituencies, Tai suggested that besides retaining the current six trade-based functional constituencies and three territory-wide directly elected District Council (Second) super seats, the camp needs to target three additional seats in Medical, Engineering and Architectural, Surveying, Planning and Landscape.[15] The plan met with reservations from the very diverse interests within pro-democracy political parties, who could not agree on a united front. Tai's plan hit its setback when the Neo Democrats decided not to support the proposed coordinating mechanism for the District Council (Second) super seats in May.[15][16]

Tai also worked on a "smart voters" system involving 25,000 voters who would indicate their preferences on an interactive poll via Telegram and would be informed of the popularity of candidates according to polls the day before the official vote and which would be updated through exit polling two and a half hours before polls closed. Such "smart voters" would delay voting until 8pm and then be signalled to support candidates whose numbers were weaker instead wasting votes on stronger candidates who were already through.[17]

Pre-election issues

Leung Chun-ying's re-election

The pan-democracy camp campaigned to block Chief Executive Leung Chun-ying, whose popularity dropped to a new low, from serving a second term. Technology and media entrepreneur Ricky Wong Wai-kay, whose Hong Kong Television Network (HKTV) free-to-air television licence was denied by Leung's Executive Council in October 2013 and sparked public uproar and protests, also started his "ABC campaign" (Anyone but CY) by announcing Leung's exit as his key campaign platform.[18] Wong was backed by the Liberal Party, a pro-Beijing party representing the business sector which had been at odds with the Chief Executive since the 2012 Chief Executive election when the Liberals openly opposed Leung.

On 28 July, President of the Legislative Council Jasper Tsang and Financial Secretary John Tsang both expressed interest in running for the Chief Executive in 2017 on different occasions. Political analysts said that the duo's moves would take some pressure off pro-Beijing camp preparing for the Legislative Council election as pro-Beijing candidates had struggled when asked in public if they supported Leung's re-election.[19]

Causeway Bay bookseller disappearances

Lam Wing-kee, one of the five Causeway Bay booksellers who went missing from October 2015 returned to Hong Kong and revealed at a press conference in June 2016 that he was kidnapped at the China–Hong Kong border in October and put through eight months of mental torture. The controversy ignited fears that mainland law enforcement officers might have acted within the territory of Hong Kong and shook Hong Kong's confidence in the one country, two systems. Professor Lau Siu-kai, former head of the Hong Kong government's think tank, the Central Policy Unit, worried that more people might vote for pan-democracy camp in September's election.[20]

Resignations of ICAC heads controversy

In July, acting head of the Independent Commission Against Corruption (ICAC) Rebecca Li Bo-lan resigned after she was removed from her position by ICAC commissioner Simon Peh Yun-lu, less than a year after he appointed her. The rare move amid speculation that Li was removed over an investigation into Chief Executive Leung Chun-ying's receipt of HK$50 million from Australian firm UGL Limited.[21] Less than a week later, long-serving ICAC principal investigator Dale Ko also resigned without any meaningful official explanation. The controversy sparked calls for a special Legislative Council investigation and raised fears about the reputation of the anti-corruption body.[22]

Ban on pro-independence candidates controversy

On 14 July 2016, the Electoral Affairs Commission (EAC) announced its plan to require all candidates to sign an additional "confirmation form" in the nomination to declare their understanding of Hong Kong being an inalienable part of China as stipulated in the Basic Law, in response to many potential localist candidates advocating or promoting Hong Kong independence. The EAC states that anyone making a false declaration in the nomination form was liable to criminal sanction.[23]

EAC returning officers also sent emails to several applicants who had not been confirmed as official candidates, including Hong Kong Indigenous' Edward Leung, Civic Passion's Alvin Cheng, Hong Kong National Party's Chan Ho-tin, to ask whether they would still advocate independence after submitting the nomination form.[24] Those questions were claimed to be a factor to determine the validity of their nominations.

After the end of the nomination period, six localist candidates received emails from the EAC which said their nominations were "invalidated", which included Chan Ho-tin, Democratic Progressive Party's Yeung Ke-cheong, Nationalist Hong Kong's Nakade Hitsujiko, Conservative Party's Alice Lai Yee-man, Hong Kong Indigenous' Edward Leung and independent Chan Kwok-keung, although many of them had signed the additional confirmation form; all except Yeung had signed the declaration statement in the nomination form saying they would "uphold the Basic Law and pledge allegiance to the Hong Kong SAR" as required by the Legislative Council Ordinance. New Territories East constituency returning officer Cora Ho Lai-sheung rejected Edward Leung's nomination on the basis that she did not trust Leung "genuinely changed his previous stance for independence."[25][26]

Contesting parties and candidates

An unprecedented number of 289 validly nominated candidates contested in the election, two more than the previous election, after seven candidates were disqualified, six of whom due to their pro-independence stance, and two withdrew their candidatures. 84 lists with a total of 213 candidates contested the 35 geographical constituencies, while 55 candidates contested in the traditional functional constituencies, 43 of them ran for 18 seats in the functional constituencies. A total of 21 candidates belonging to 9 lists contested the five "super seats" in the District Council (Second) functional constituency.[27]

Pro-Beijing camp

Pan-democracy camp

Localist groups

Moderate groups

  • Path of Democracy: The new moderate group led by former Civic Party legislator Ronny Tong fielded two candidates, governors Gary Wong Chi-him and Raymond Mak Ka-chun in Hong Kong Island and New Territories East.[50][51]
  • Third Side: The new moderate party led by former Democratic Party vice-chairman Tik Chi-yuen planned to field candidates in Kowloon West and two New Territories constituencies, but later dropped out of the New Territories East contest and triggered the departure of ten party member including two vice-chairmen Marcus Liu Tin-shing and Ben Kuen Ping-yiu.[52][53][54] Liu and Kuen later led an independent ticket in New Territories East; another party member Wong Sing-chi decided to run in Social Welfare as an independent.

Retiring incumbents

Constituency Departing incumbents Party
Hong Kong IslandKenneth Chan Civic
Jasper Tsang DAB
Kowloon EastChan Kam-lam DAB
New Territories WestTam Yiu-chung DAB
Heung Yee KukLau Wong-fat BPA
MedicalLeung Ka-lau Nonpartisan
Social WelfareCheung Kwok-che Labour/SWGU
Industrial (Second)Lam Tai-fai Nonpartisan
FinanceNg Leung-sing Nonpartisan
Wholesale and RetailVincent Fang Liberal
District Council (First)Ip Kwok-him DAB
District Council (Second)Chan Yuen-han FTU


Election strategies

Many political parties and groups and individuals formed strategic alliances in the campaign. Alvin Yeung of the Civic Party who led in the opinion polls in the New Territories East cooperated with Labour Party's Fernando Cheung who traced behind in the polls. Leung Yiu-chung of the Neighbourhood and Worker's Service Centre (NWSC) who ran in the territory-wide District Council (Second) "super seat" also had joint-promotional leaflets with Lau Siu-lai of Democracy Groundwork in Kowloon West. Liberal Party honorary chairman James Tien who was running in the New Territories East and "middle-of-the-road" politician Ricky Wong Wai-kay who aimed at the last seat in Hong Kong Island also went out of their constituencies and campaigned for each other. James Tien also campaigned for the "middle-of-the-road" party Third Side's Tik Chi-yuen who aimed at the last seat in Kowloon West against Yau Wai-ching of the localist group Youngspiration.[55] On 15 August, it was reported that volunteers and staff from Kowloon West New Dynamic chaired by pro-Beijing politician Priscilla Leung helped Tik arrange a meet-the-public event in Sham Shui Po.[56]

In the District Council (Second) constituency, the Democratic Party also asked the supporters of veteran James To who led in the polls to vote for another Democrat candidate Kwong Chun-yu who was fighting for the last seat against Democratic Alliance for the Betterment and Progress of Hong Kong (DAB) candidate Holden Chow.[57] The Democratic Party invited former Chief Secretary Anson Chan to back Kwong, who also endorsed Civic Party's Sumly Chan who ran in the same constituency.[58]

In late August, the pro-Beijing parties also began to campaign for each other. DAB District Council (Second) candidate Holden Chow campaigned for New People's Party (NPP) New Territories East candidate Eunice Yung who was behind in the opinion polls, in exchange for the 24 NPP New Territories district councillors to campaign for Chow. Hong Kong Federation of Trade Unions (FTU) District Council (Second) candidate Wong Kwok-hing also campaigned with Business and Professionals Alliance for Hong Kong (BPA) Kowloon West candidate Priscilla Leung, the only constituency where the FTU did not field their candidate.[59]

Issues and election forums

Issues including Hong Kong independence, filibustering, universal retirement protection scheme, standard working hours and Chief Executive Leung Chun-ying's administration and re-election took central stage at the election forums. Pro-Beijing candidates questioned pan-democrat parties' stance on Hong Kong independence, while localist Kowloon East Community's Chan Chak-to declared his support for independence at the TVB Kowloon East electoral forum despite six pro-independence candidates had been disqualified. Localist candidates exchanged criticisms with the pan-democrats as the pan-democrat candidates dismissed localists' pro-independence call as empty talk.[60]

The pro-Beijing candidates also accused the pan-democrats of their filibustering and obstructionism in the Legislative Council, while pan-democrat candidates attacked the pro-Beijing candidates did not push for a more progressive universal retirement protection scheme and standard working hours policies. The pan-democrats also criticised the pro-Beijing camp being allies of the Leung Chun-ying government and opposed to use Powers and Privileges Ordinance to investigate into Leung's receipt of HK$50 million from UGL Limited and resignations of ICAC heads.

Ken Chow's dropout

On 25 August, Liberal Party's Ken Chow Wing-kan who ran for New Territories West announced he would stop his electioneering at the Cable TV election forum for fear of "people close to him paying a heavy price". He earlier revealed that he was approached by a middleman to quit the race for a hefty sum of money.[61] Chow passed a voice clip to the media before the election forum, in which a man claimed he would bring 20 to 30 Ho supporters to "pursue" Chow before and after the forum so that he would "lose mood" for the debate. The man in the clip also said the supporters should wear another candidate Lawyer Junius Ho’s vests during the forum.[62] Ho denied having any plans to intimidate Chow and claimed he had rejected one of his supporters' proposal to "pursue" Chow.[63]

Pan-democrat candidates' dropouts

On 2 September less than 48 hours before the election day and after the release of the large-scale opinion poll conducted by University of Hong Kong Public Opinion Programme (HKUPOP) and sponsored by pro-democracy group Power for Democracy, five pro-democrat candidates, independents Paul Zimmerman and Chui Chi-kin in Hong Kong Island, Labour Party's Suzanne Wu in Kowloon East and Civic Party's Sumly Chan and Association for Democracy and People's Livelihood's (ADPL) Kalvin Ho in District Council (Second), suspended their campaigns in the hope of deflecting support to fellow pan-democrats who were seen as standing a better chance.[64] Clarice Cheung Wai-ching, a non-aligned independent also abandoned her campaign in New Territories West and called her supporters to vote for pan-democrat candidates. On 3 September, the third pro-democratic District Council (Second) candidate Kwan Wing-yip also aborted his campaign but marked it as "a dark day for democracy".[65]

Opinion polling


The reliability of the rolling poll conducted by the University of Hong Kong Public Opinion Programme (HKUPOP) was widely questioned. The sample size of the poll, fewer than 300 respondents in each of the five geographical constituencies each day, was criticised as being too small. Additionally, pollsters only mentioned the first candidate on the list during interviews which could have made a difference in the results, as many veterans, including Democrats Sin Chung-kai, Albert Ho and Emily Lau, Liberal James Tien, Civic Party's Alan Leong, and People Power Albert Chan, stood in the second place behind the new faces on their party lists while their lists continued to trail behind in the polls.[57] After the complaints, the HKUPOP decided to mention two candidates on the candidate list to respondents from 22 August night onwards.[66]


Before election:

27 1 42
(pro-democrats & localists)

Change in composition:

29 1 40
(pro-democrats & localists)
e  d Summary of the 4 September 2016 Legislative Council of Hong Kong election results
Political affiliation
Geographical Constituencies Traditional Functional Constituencies
District Council (Second) FC Total
% ±pp
DAB 361,61716.683.547980.060.013568,56129.770.192121
BPA 49,7452.29N/A14,6222.76N/A6----70
FTU 169,8547.830.773---2233,23612.113.36051
Liberal 21,5000.991.7006,3813.823.064----41
NPP 167,5897.733.973--------31
FLU -------1----10
New Forum ----1,3890.83-1----10
Pro-Beijing others 100,7114.64N/A240,25524.07N/A5----71
Total for pro-Beijing camp 871,01640.172.491652,74531.544.6222801,79741.983.452403
Democratic 199,8769.224.4351,2310.740.290735,59738.514.25271
Civic 207,8859.594.4953,4052.041.11128,3111.48N/A060
PP–LSD 156,0197.207.392--------21
Professional Commons ----18,38410.99N/A2----20
Labour 101,8604.701.491--------13
NWSC 20,9740.971.450----303,45715.89N/A110
PTU ----45,98427.495.281----10
ADPL 33,2551.530.160----17,1750.9015.57001
Neo Democrats 31,5951.460.120----23,6311.24N/A001
Other democrats 29,7041.37N/A029,89517.87N/A3----32
Total for pan-democrats 781,16836.0220.141398,89959.133.1571,108,17158.027.293233
ALLinHK 81,4223.75New2--------22
CP–PPI–HKRO 154,1767.11N/A1--------10
Demosistō 50,8182.34New1--------11
Democracy Groundwork 38,1831.76New1--------11
Other localists 87,2944.03N/A1--------11
Total for localists 411,89319.00-6--------65
Path of Democracy 18,1120.84New0--------00
Third Side 13,4610.62New0--------00
Non-aligned independents 72,7613.36N/A015,6139.33N/A1----11
Total for non-aligned others 103,3344.813.71015,6139.337.781--- -11
Total 2,167,411100.0035167,257100.00301,909,968100.00570-
Valid votes2,167,41198.420.04167,25796.782.811,909,96896.311.15
Invalid votes34,8721.530.045,5633.222.8173,0813.721.15
Votes cast / turnout2,202,28358.284.97172,82074.334.681,983,04957.095.14
Registered voters3,779,085100.009.03232,498100.007.153,473,792100.007.89

    Votes summary

    Votes, of total, by camp

      Pro-Beijing (40.17%)
      Pan-democrats (36.02%)
      Localists (19.00%)
      Other (4.81%)

    Seats, of total, by camp

      Pro-Beijing (57.14%)
      Pan-democrats (32.86%)
      Localists (8.57%)
      Other (1.43%)
    Popular vote
    Neo Democrats
    Third Side

    Seats summary

    New Forum

    Results by district

    Incumbents defeated

    Fifteen incumbents lost re-election.

    Party Name Constituency Remarks
    ADPL (1)Frederick FungDistrict Council (Second)Ran in New Territories West.
    Civic (1)Alan LeongKowloon EastStood as second candidate.
    DAB (1)Christopher ChungHong Kong IslandStood as second candidate.
    Democratic (3)Albert HoDistrict Council (Second)Ran in New Territories West; stood as second candidate.
    Emily LauNew Territories EastStood as second candidate.
    Sin Chung-kaiHong Kong IslandStood as second candidate.
    FTU (2)Tang Ka-piuLabourRan in New Territories East.
    Wong Kwok-hingHong Kong IslandRan in District Council (Second).
    Labour (2)Cyd HoHong Kong Island
    Lee Cheuk-yanNew Territories West
    Liberal (1)James TienNew Territories EastStood as second candidate.
    Neo Democrats (1)Gary FanNew Territories East
    People Power (1)Albert ChanNew Territories WestStood as second candidate.
    PPI (1)Wong Yuk-manKowloon West
    Independent (1)Tony TseArchitectural, Surveying, Planning and Landscape


    Pro-democrats' results in 18 districts.
    Pro-Beijing camp's results in 18 districts.

    A unprecedented number of 2.2 million voters cast their votes, which composed of 58 per cent of the total electorate. Many voters queued outside the polling stations even after polling stations were due to close at 10:30pm and a polling station in Taikoo Shing, the last vote was cast at almost 2:30am.[67] the anti-establishment forces, including the pan-democrats and the localists, won 29 out of 70 seats; managed to retain the majority in the geographical constituencies to block the pro-Beijing camp's attempt to amend the rule of procedures to curb radicals' filibustering and the opposition's crucial one-thirds minority to maintain the veto power on government's constitutional reform proposal.

    The localists, six backers of self-determination for Hong Kong, including Yau Wai-ching and Baggio Leung from the post-Occupy group Youngspiration, Occupy student leader Nathan Law of the Demosisto, who became the youngest ever candidate to be elected, Polytechnic University lecturer Lau Siu-lai, Eddie Chu, were returned in the geographical constituencies, securing of nearly 20 per cent of the vote share.[2] Eddie Chu, a social activist and environmentalist, bagged more than 84,000 votes, the highest votes received in the geographical constituencies, without any party backing in New Territories West, leading the first runner-up, New People's Party's Michael Tien by about 13,000 votes. His allies, Nathan Law and Lau Siu-lai also became the pro-democrats which received the highest votes in Hong Kong Island and Kowloon West. The three took a total of 173,122 votes.[68] For the ardently localist faction, Baggio Leung, leader of Youngspiration won in New Territories East after his ally, Hong Kong Indigenous' Edward Leung was barred from poll while Yau Wai-ching won last seat in Kowloon West by about 400 votes at the expense of veteran Wong Yuk-man of the Proletariat Political Institute. Wong's ally, Civic Passion leader Wong Yeung-tat also lost in his second bid in Kowloon East. Only Cheng Chung-tai from the electoral alliance won a seat in the New Territories West.

    The pan-democrats saw their big names losing, including Labour Party's Lee Cheuk-yan and Cyd Ho and Association for Democracy and People's Livelihood's (ADPL) Frederick Fung. As a result, ADPL and Neo Democrats were ousted from the legislature while Labour retained only one seat. Benny Tai's ThunderGo plan was blamed as he released on the election day a list of recommended pro-democratic candidates based on pre-polling. It drew the voters to vote for the candidates who were on the brink of losing as shown in the polls from other candidates, which resulted in highest votes received by Eddie Chu, Lau Siu-lai and Nathan Law at other veteran democrats' expenses. Kwong Chun-yu, a Democratic Party young candidate in the District Council (Second) "super seat" who was also tracing behind in the polls received the highest votes of nearly 500,000 votes as a result, while the former "King of Votes", veteran Democrat James To who had led in the polls for weeks faced a tough battle with pro-Beijing Hong Kong Federation of Trade Unions's (FTU) Wong Kwok-hing for the last of the five "super seats". To secured the third seats for the pan-democrats with a thin margin of 10,694 votes.[69] By putting themselves on the second place in their candidate lists, the veteran Democrats also managed to help their young colleagues to be elected, which made the Democratic Party the largest pro-democratic party again, overtaking the Civic Party. The pro-democrats retained their six out of nine seats in New Territories East, with both radicals democrats, Leung Kwok-hung of the League of Social Democrats (LSD) and Chan Chi-chuen of the People Power retained their seats despite the overcrowding of the pro-democratic tickets. Leung, who took the last seat in the New Territories East by the margin of only 1,051 votes.

    The pan-democrats also boost their functional constituency seats to 10. Besides retaining the pan-democrats' traditional strongholds including Legal and Education, as well as Kenneth Leung's Accountancy and Charles Mok's Information Technology, pan-democrat Edward Yiu made a surprise victory in Architectural, Surveying, Planning and Landscape, defeating incumbent pro-Beijing Tony Tse who became the only incumbent who lost in the functional constituencies. The pro-Beijing camp remained dominant in the functional constituencies. The pro-business Business and Professionals Alliance for Hong Kong (BPA) dominated in the functional constituencies by retaining six seats as well as Priscilla Leung's seat in Kowloon West. The Liberal Party came second by retaining the four functional constituency despite Joseph Chan's unsuccessful challenge against BPA's Jeffrey Lam in Commercial (First) and Dominic Lee's failed bid in New Territories East. The Democratic Alliance for the Betterment and Progress of Hong Kong (DAB) maintained its status as the largest party by winning 12 seats in total, one seat fewer than the previous election, while Regina Ip's New People's Party took one extra seat in New Territories East with a young barrister Eunice Yung who was supported by the Liaison Office. Another pro-Beijing candidate supported by the Liaison Office, independent lawyer Junius Ho, also won the last seat in New Territories West against Lee Cheuk-yan.[70]

    Candidate lists and results

    The nominations received and validated by the Electoral Affairs Commission listed as following:[71]

    Geographical Constituencies (35 seats)

    Voting system: Party-list proportional representation with largest remainder method and Hare quota.

    Results of the Geographical Constituencies
    Hong Kong Island
    List №Align.Party/AllegianceCandidate(s) wonNot electedVotesVotes %Seat(s) won
    1N Path of DemocracyGary Wong Chi-him10,0282.66
    2D People PowerChristopher Lau Gar-hung, Erica Yuen Mi-ming7,276 1.93
    3B NPPRegina Ip Lau Suk-yeeJudy Chan Ka-pui, Joey Lee Man-lung, Tse Tsz-kei, Hung Lung-chuen, Gigi Wong Ching-chi60,76016.13
    4D LabourCyd Ho Sau-lan, Mak Tak-ching, Cheng Sze-lut19,3765.15
    5B DABCheung Kwok-kwanChristopher Chung Shu-kun, Jacqueline Chung Ka-man, Ada Mak Tse How-ling, Eddie Ting Kong-ho, Dominic Wong Chi-chung41,15210.93
    6B NonpartisanChim Pui-chung2,5870.69
    7L Civic PassionCheng Kam-mun, Bonix Chung Yuen-wun22,5555.99
    8L DemosistōNathan Law Kwun-chung50,81813.49
    9N NonpartisanShum Chee-chiu1,6540.44
    10N NonpartisanRicky Wong Wai-kay33,3238.85
    11D NonpartisanChui Chi-kin6700.18
    12D Independent democratPaulus Johannes Zimmerman2,5500.68
    13D DemocraticHui Chi-fungSin Chung-kai42,49911.29
    14D CivicTanya ChanCheng Tat-hung35,4049.40
    15B FTUKwok Wai-keungNg Chau-pei, Stanley Ho Ngai-kam, Lui Hung-pan, Chan Wing-yan 45,92512.20
    TOTAL (Quota: 16.67%)376,577100.00
    Kowloon West
    List №Align.Party/AllegianceCandidate(s) wonNot electedVotesVotes %Seat(s) won
    1D LSDAvery Ng Man-yuen6,8112.44
    2L HKLPJonathan Ho Chi-kwong3990.14
    3D CivicClaudia Mo Man-chingJoshua Li Chun-hei32,323 11.59
    4B BPA/KWNDLeung Mei-funLeung Man-kwong, Cho Wui-hung, Kacee Ting Wong, Leung Yuen-ting, Chan Kwok-wai49,74517.84
    5D ADPLTam Kwok-kiu, Yeung Yuk, Wong Wing-kit15,3835.52
    6DPioneer of Victoria ParkChu Siu-hung6800.24
    7L PPIWong Yuk-man, Ma Yu-sang20,2197.25
    8D DemocraticWong Pik-wanRamon Yuen Hoi-man, Joshua Fung Man-tao, Chau Man-fong 26,0379.34
    9D IndependentLam Yi-lai, Au Wing-ho6340.23
    10B DABAnn Chiang Lai-wanChris Ip Ngo-tung, Chan Wai-ming, Siu Tin-hung, Cheung Tak-wai52,54118.84
    11B Politihk SSKwan San-wai, Ko Chi-keung938 0.34
    12LDGLau Siu-lai38,18313.69
    13L YoungspirationYau Wai-ching20,6437.40
    14D NonpartisanAugustine Lee Wing-hon, Foo Wai-kok8740.31
    15N Third SideTik Chi-yuen, Wong Chun-long, Pang Yi-ting, Chen Lihong13,4614.83
    TOTAL (Quota: 16.67%)278,871100.00
    Kowloon East
    List №Align.Party/AllegianceCandidate(s) wonNot electedVotesVotes %Seat(s) won
    1B FTUWong Kwok-kinChow Luen-kiu, Kan Ming-tung, Kwok Wang-hing47,318 14.38
    2D LabourWu Sui-shan, Chiu Shi-shun2,5350.77
    3B VLHKPatrick Ko Tat-pun2,4440.74
    4D FrontierTam Heung-man2,6030.79
    5B NonpartisanPaul Tse Wai-chun47,52714.45
    6B DABWilson Or Chong-shingJoe Lai Wing-ho, Cheung Ki-tang51,51615.66
    7D NonpartisanLui Wing-kei1,3930.42
    8D DemocraticWu Chi-wai Mok Kin-shing, Cheng Keng-ieong, Wu Chi-kin50,309 15.29
    9D CivicJeremy Jansen Tam Man-hoAlan Leong Kah-kit45,408 13.80
    10L Civic PassionWong Yeung-tat33,27110.11
    11L KECChan Chak-to12,8543.91
    12D People PowerTam Tak-chi31,8159.67
    TOTAL (Quota: 20.00%)328,993100.00
    New Territories West
    List №Align.Party/AllegianceCandidate(s) wonNot electedVotesVotes %Seat(s) won
    1D NWSCWong Yun-tat, Leung Ching-shan, Rayman Chow Wai-hung20,974 3.48
    2D DemocraticAndrew Wan Siu-kinHo Chun-yan, Lee Wing-tat, Catherine Wong Lai-sheung, Lam Siu-fai 41,7046.91
    3B Politihk SSKo Chi-fai, Innes Tang Tak-shing6040.10
    4B LiberalChow Wing-kan1,4690.24
    5L Civic PassionCheng Chung-taiCheung Yiu-sum54,4969.03
    6B NonpartisanKwong Koon-wan8100.13
    7B NPPMichael Tien Puk-sunWilson Wong Wai-shun, So Ka-man, Tsui Hiu-kit, Kam Man-fung, Cheng Chit-pun, Sammi Fu Hiu-lam70,64611.71
    8B IndependentHo Kwan-yiu35,6575.91
    9B DAB/NTASLeung Che-cheungLui Kin, Ken Wong Hon-kuen, Yip Man-pan, Chiu Kwan-siu, Lai Ka-man50,1908.32
    10D CivicKwok Ka-kiSin Ho-fai42,3347.02
    11D LSD/PPWong Ho-ming, Albert Chan Wai-yip28,529 4.73
    12D LabourLee Cheuk-yan, Chiu Yan-loy30,1495.00
    13L Youngspiration/TSWNFWong Chun-kit, Wong Pak-yu9,928 1.65
    14B FTUAlice Mak Mei-kuenYiu Kwok-wai, Kot Siu-yuen, Fung Pui-yin, Lau Chin-pang 49,6808.23
    15D ADPLFrederick Fung Kin-kee17,872 2.96
    16B DABChan Han-panKwok Fu-yung, Li Sai-lung, Leung Kar-ming, Chan Chun-chung, Lui Dik-ming, Pau Ming-hong58,6739.72
    17N NonpartisanClarice Cheung Wai-ching2,3900.40
    18L Christians to the WorldHendrick Lui Chi-hang8120.13
    19D NonpartisanTong Wing-chi2,4080.40
    20L NonpartisanEddie Chu Hoi-dick84,12113.94
    TOTAL (Quota: 11.11%)603,446100.00
    New Territories East
    List №Align.Party/AllegianceCandidate(s) wonNot electedVotesVotes %Seat(s) won
    1N IndependentChristine Fong Kwok-shan34,5445.95
    2D DemocraticLam Cheuk-tingEmily Lau Wai-hing, Ting Tsz-yuen, Ng Kam-hung, Lo Ying-cheung 39,3276.77
    3N NonpartisanLiu Tin-shing, Kuen Ping-yiu, Li Wai8500.15
    4L HKRO/CPChin Wan-kan, Marco Lee Kwok-hei23,6354.07
    5D LSDLeung Kwok-hung35,5956.13
    6D LabourCheung Chiu-hungKwok Wing-kin49,8008.58
    7D CivicAlvin Yeung Ngok-kiu52,4169.03
    8N Path of DemocracyRaymond Mak Ka-chun8,0841.39
    9D IndependentAndrew Cheng Kar-foo17,8923.08
    10B DABElizabeth QuatChong Yuen-tung, Tung Kin-lei, Chan Pok-chi, Alvin Chiu Man-leong, Philip Li Ka-leung, Wan Kai-ming, Ada Lo Tai-suen, Alf Wong Chi-yung58,82510.13
    11B NonpartisanHau Chi-keung, Wong Shui-sang, Pang Wang-kin, Yip Wah-ching6,7201.16
    12B LiberalDominic Lee Tsz-king, James Tien Pei-chun20,031 3.45
    13B FTUTang Ka-piu, Tam Kam-lin, Kent Tsang King-chung26,931 4.64
    14D Neo DemocratsGary Fan Kwok-wai, Yam Kai-bong, Leung Li, Chung Kam-lun, Chan Wai-tat, Li Sai-hung, Chow Yuen-wai, Lui Man-kwong 31,5955.44
    15B NonpartisanEstella Chan Yuk-ngor4860.08
    16L IndependentWong Sum-yu1,6570.29
    17B Justice AllianceLeticia Lee See-yin2,9380.51
    18D People PowerRaymond Chan Chi-chuen45,9937.92
    19L Youngspiration /NonpartisanSixtus Leung Chung-hangLi Tung-sing37,997 6.55
    20L IndependentClarence Ronald Leung Kam-shing, Yau Man-king305 0.05
    21B NPP/CFYung Hoi-yanStanley Lanny Tam, Victor Leung Ka-fai, Chan Man-kuen, Tong Hok-leung, James Yip Chi-ho, Michael Liu Tsz-chung36,1836.23
    22B DAB/NTASChan Hak-kanClement Woo Kin-man, Yiu Ming, Wong Pik-kiu, Larm Wai-leung, Tsang Hing-lung, Mui Siu-fung, Hau Hon-shek48,7208.39
    TOTAL (Quota: 11.11%)580,524100.00

    District Council (Second) Functional Constituency (5 seats)

    Voting system: Party-list proportional representation with largest remainder method and Hare quota.

    District Council (Second) Functional Constituency
    List №Align.Party/AllegianceCandidate(s) wonNot electedVotesVotes %Seat(s) won
    801D DemocraticJames To Kun-sun243,93012.77
    802B DABStarry Lee Wai-kingHung Lin-cham, Chu Lap-wai, Ngan Man-yu, Siu Ka-yi304,22215.93
    803D DemocraticKwong Chun-yu491,66725.74
    804D ADPLKalvin Ho Kai-ming17,1750.90
    805D CivicSumly Chan Yuen-sum28,3111.48
    806B FTUWong Kwok-hing, Mok Kin-wing, Wong Wang-to, Lau Kwai-yung233,23612.21
    807D Neo DemocratsKwan Wing-yip, Hui Yui-yu, Lai Ming-chak23,6311.24
    808D NWSCLeung Yiu-chung303,45715.89
    809B DABHolden Chow Ho-dingLi Sai-wing, Nixie Lam Lam, Mo Shing-fung 264,33913.84
    TOTAL (Quota: 20.00%)1,909,968100.00

    Other Functional Constituencies (30 seats)

    Voting systems: Different voting systems apply to different functional constituencies, namely for the Heung Yee Kuk, Agriculture and Fisheries, Insurance and Transport, the preferential elimination system of voting was used; and for the remaining 24 FCs the first-past-the-post voting system.[72]

    Results of the Functional Constituencies (excluding District Council (Second) constituency)
    ConstituencyIncumbentResultCandidate(s)VotesVotes %
    Heung Yee Kuk Lau Wong-fat
    Incumbent retired
    BPA hold
    Kenneth Lau Ip-keung (BPA)uncontested
    Agriculture and Fisheries Steven Ho Chun-yin
    Incumbent hold Steven Ho Chun-yin (DAB)9873.68
    Wong Yung-kan (Nonpartisan)3526.32
    InsuranceChan Kin-por
    Incumbent hold Chan Kin-por (Independent)uncontested
    Transport Frankie Yick Chi-ming
    Incumbent hold Frankie Yick Chi-ming (Liberal)12775.15
    Yau Ying-wah (Nonpartisan)4224.84
    Education Ip Kin-yuen
    Incumbent hold Ip Kin-yuen (PTU)45,98471.69
    Choi Yuk-lin (Nonpartisan)18,15828.31
    Legal Dennis Kwok Wing-hang
    Incumbent hold Dennis Kwok Wing-hang (Civic)3,40569.48
    Catherine Mun Lee-ming (Nonpartisan)1,49630.52
    Accountancy Kenneth Leung Kai-cheong
    Incumbent hold Kenneth Leung Kai-cheong (PC)12,13163.96
    Kenneth Chen Yung-ngai (Independent)6,83636.04
    Medical Leung Ka-lau
    Incumbent retired
    Nonpartisan gain
    Pierre Chan (Nonpartisan)5,62671.44
    Wong Yee-him (Nonpartisan)2,24928.56
    Health Services Joseph Lee Kok-long
    Incumbent hold Joseph Lee Kok-long (Nonpartisan)15,22161.75
    Philip Choi Pui-wah (Nonpartisan)9,43038.25
    Engineering Lo Wai-kwok
    Incumbent hold Lo Wai-kwok (BPA)3,90655.47
    Louis Ching Ming-tat (Independent)2,09729.78
    John Luk Wang-kwong (Nonpartisan)1,03914.75
    Architectural, Surveying, Planning and Landscape Tony Tse Wai-chuen
    Incumbent lost re-election
    Nonpartisan gain
    Yiu Chung-yim (Nonpartisan)2,49143.44
    Tony Tse Wai-chuen (Independent)2,00935.03
    Bernard Vincent Lim Wan-fung (Nonpartisan)1,23521.53
    Labour (3 seats) Poon Siu-ping (FLU)Incumbent holdPoon Siu-ping (FLU)uncontested
    Kwok Wai-keung (FTU)Incumbent running for HKI GC
    FTU hold
    Ho Kai-ming (FTU)uncontested
    Tang Ka-piu (FTU)Incumbent running for NTE GC
    FTU hold
    Luk Chung-hung (FTU)uncontested
    Social Welfare Cheung Kwok-che
    Incumbent retired
    Independent gain
    Shiu Ka-chun (Independent)4,60340.79
    Yip Kin-chung (Nonpartisan)3,85834.19
    Kwan Yui-huen (Nonpartisan)1,25511.12
    Tsang Kin-chiu (Nonpartisan)1,0118.96
    Wong Sing-chi (Nonpartisan)5574.94
    Real Estate and ConstructionAbraham Shek Lai-him
    Incumbent holdAbraham Shek Lai-him (BPA)uncontested
    Tourism Yiu Si-wing
    Incumbent hold Yiu Si-wing (Nonpartisan)62560.86
    Freddy Yip Hing-ning (Nonpartisan)28828.04
    Lam Siu-lun (Nonpartisan)11411.10
    Commercial (First) Jeffrey Lam Kin-fung
    Incumbent hold Jeffrey Lam Kin-fung (BPA)45553.97
    Joseph Chan Ho-lim (Liberal)38846.03
    Commercial (Second)Martin Liao Cheung-kong
    Incumbent holdMartin Liao Cheung-kong (Nonpartisan)uncontested
    Industrial (First)Andrew Leung Kwan-yuen
    Incumbent holdAndrew Leung Kwan-yuen (BPA)uncontested
    Industrial (Second)Lam Tai-fai
    Incumbent retired
    Nonpartisan gain
    Ng Wing-ka (Nonpartisan)uncontested
    FinanceNg Leung-sing
    Incumbent retired
    Nonpartisan gain
    Chan Chun-ying (Nonpartisan)uncontested
    Financial Services Christopher Cheung Wah-fung
    Incumbent hold Christopher Cheung Wah-fung (BPA)26151.48
    Ricky Chim Kim-lun (Nonpartisan)15029.59
    Tsui Luen-on (Nonpartisan)9618.93
    Sports, Performing Arts, Culture and Publication Ma Fung-kwok
    (New Forum)
    Incumbent hold Ma Fung-kwok (New Forum)1,38963.19
    Chow Pok-yin (Nonpartisan)80936.02
    Import and ExportWong Ting-kwong
    Incumbent holdWong Ting-kwong (DAB)uncontested
    Textiles and Garment Chung Kwok-pan
    Incumbent hold Chung Kwok-pan (Liberal)1,13875.92
    Kenny Yang Si-kit (Nonpartisan)36124.08
    Wholesale and Retail Vincent Fang Kang
    Incumbent retired
    Liberal hold
    Shiu Ka-fai (Liberal)2,29065.04
    Au Nok-hin (Democratic)1,23134.96
    Information Technology Charles Peter Mok
    Incumbent hold Charles Peter Mok (PC)6,25364.61
    Eric Yeung Chuen-sing (Nonpartisan)3,42535.39
    Catering Tommy Cheung Yu-yan
    Incumbent hold Tommy Cheung Yu-yan (Liberal)2,43879.03
    Ng Wing-tak (Nonpartisan)64720.97
    District Council (First)Ip Kwok-him
    Incumbent retired
    DAB hold
    Lau Kwok-fan (DAB)uncontested


    New People's Party chairwoman Regina Ip's car was caught driving out from the Liaison Office few hours after the election. Ip initially told Ming Pao her car was at the Liaison Office because she was sending some books she wrote to her friends there. She later admitted she lied about it as she "was requested by the other party to keep the meeting confidential". She also denied that she went there to thank Beijing for its support in the election.[73] She was criticised as the Liaison Office had been accused for meddling in local politics and elections.

    Rosanda Mok of the Association for Democracy and People's Livelihood and Erica Yuen of the People Power resigned as chairwoman after the parties' election defeats. Gary Fan who lost Neo Democrats' only seat in the legislature also resigned from the party's executive committee. Three Neo Democrats' Sha Tin District Councillors, Yau Man-chun, Billy Chan Shiu-yeung and Sunny Chiu Chu-pong, who campaigned for another pro-democrat Andrew Cheng without the party's consent were expelled from the party after the election. Fan criticised Cheng, Fan's mentor, for splitting the votes and causing his defeat.[74]

    Benny Tai's tactical voting plan ThunderGo was also blamed for causing the losses of the veteran pan-democrats, including Labour Party's Lee Cheuk-yan, as well as Civic Passion's Wong Yeung-tat, in whom the plan advise to drop to make way for League of Social Democrats' Wong Ho-ming and People Power's Tam Tak-chi in New Territories West and Kowloon East respectively. The seats were eventually won by pro-Beijing independents Junius Ho and Paul Tse in those constituencies. Benny Tai said the root of the matter was the fragmenting of the opposition camp, leading to many candidate lists which led to the need for tactical voting.[75]

    After the election, nonpartisan Eddie Chu, who was widely known for taking on the Heung Yee Kuk over its land rights, complained of "imminent" death threats against him and his family. Chu's campaign drew public attention to the long-time allegations of collusion between the government, business, landlords and triads behind the Wang Chau housing project, which made the government to scale down the housing project from 17,000 flats to only 4,000 due to the pressure from the powerful rural leader Tsang Shu-wo who owned the brownfield land in Wang Chau.[76] He was placed under round-the-clock protection by the police days after the election.[77] The incident escalated into the a major political crisis in the following weeks as the government was questioned over the alleged collusion.

    On 8 September, Chan Ho-tin of the Hong Kong National Party (HKNP) who was disqualified from standing in the election challenged the government through an election petition.[78] Edward Leung of Hong Kong Indigenous also filed his legal petition over his disqualification on 7 October.[79] On 13 February 2018, the High Court ruled against Chan Ho-tin on his petition.[80]

    See also


    1. The candidate was not elected as he or she stood as a second candidate on the party list.


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    76. "Tough questions for all those involved in Hong Kong's Wang Chau housing saga". South China Morning Post. 20 September 2016.
    77. "Afraid to go home since election day, 'king of votes' Eddie Chu gets round-the-clock police protection over death threat". South China Morning Post. 8 September 2016.
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    80. "陳浩天呈請敗訴 陳弘毅料有機會上訴至終院". 東方日報. 13 February 2018.

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