2016 Labour Party leadership election (UK)
The 2016 Labour Party leadership election was called when a challenge to Jeremy Corbyn as Leader of the Labour Party arose following criticism of his approach to the Remain campaign in the referendum on membership of the European Union and questions about his leadership of the party.
After a period of tension over Corbyn's leadership, the immediate trigger to events was the Leave result of the referendum. Hilary Benn, the Shadow Foreign Secretary, was sacked by Corbyn on 25 June after Benn expressed no confidence in him. More than two dozen members of the Shadow Cabinet resigned over the following two days, and a no-confidence vote was supported by 172 MPs in the Parliamentary Labour Party, against 40 supporting Corbyn. It was reported that Tom Watson, the Deputy Leader, told Corbyn that he would face a challenge to his position as leader. Corbyn stated that he would not resign.
By the end of June, Angela Eagle and Owen Smith were being promoted as intending to contest the leadership. Eagle announced her candidacy on 11 July, and Smith did likewise on 13 July. The National Executive Committee decided that, as the incumbent, Corbyn would be automatically included on the ballot without requiring nominations from the parliamentary party; some political analysts had previously predicted that Corbyn would struggle to obtain the requisite number of signatures had that been required.
Eagle pulled out of the race on 19 July, leaving Smith to challenge Corbyn for the leadership in a head-to-head race; Eagle said that she would back Smith after she had attracted fewer nominations. Smith told the BBC that Eagle was a "star" and that she would be "at [his] right hand" if he won the leadership.
The result was announced on 24 September 2016. Jeremy Corbyn won the election with 313,209 votes, increasing his share of the vote from 59.5% to 61.8% compared with the result of the 2015 leadership election, and receiving some 62,000 more votes than in 2015.
2015 leadership election
Jeremy Corbyn was one of four candidates for the Labour Party leadership in the 2015 leadership election triggered by the resignation of Ed Miliband as leader. He qualified for the ballot at the last minute, nominated by 36 MPs, the majority of whom did not support him but felt that the party should be able to vote on a wider range of candidates. Despite being the most unpopular option with the Parliamentary Labour Party, with only 13 MPs voting for him, he received 59.5% of the first preference votes from an electorate consisting of party membership, members of affiliated trade unions and supporters who paid £3 to have a vote.
When it became clear that Jeremy Corbyn would win the leadership election in 2015, the possibility of a challenge to his leadership was predicted by then Labour MP Simon Danczuk. A leadership challenge was then much discussed in the British press in November due to a split in the parliamentary party over the prospect of Britain's participation in air strikes in Syria. Another potential challenge was predicted in April after Ken Livingstone's allegedly anti-semitic comments led to his suspension, and Shadow Cabinet members allegedly held talks with plotters. The Guardian reported that "a small group of Labour MPs and advisers had been telling journalists for months to 'expect movement' against Corbyn on 24 June."
After the referendum
The pressure on Corbyn intensified as a result of the European Union referendum and dissatisfaction with his level of support for the losing Remain campaign. On 25 June, a 'Saving Labour' campaign website was created, to encourage members of the public to email MPs to urge them not to back Corbyn.
Shadow Cabinet resignations
On 25 June Hilary Benn, a critic of Corbyn, contacted members of the shadow cabinet to inform them that he had lost confidence in Corbyn. He was subsequently sacked as shadow Foreign Secretary, triggering a series of Shadow Cabinet resignations; at least 20 individuals resigned over the next few days. An article in The Observer, published online at 10 pm on 25 June, claimed that Benn had been sounding out a challenge against Corbyn. Corbyn assembled a new Shadow Cabinet, and insisted that he would not resign.
Vote of no confidence
A vote of no confidence in Corbyn was made by the parliamentary party on 28 June, with Corbyn losing the vote by 172 to 40, with four spoiled ballots and thirteen absentees. However Labour Party rules did not require Corbyn to resign as a result of the vote. Corbyn struggled to fill a new Shadow Cabinet, which had to be reduced in size from 31 to 25. The Scottish National Party sought to argue that they should become the official Opposition in the Commons with Labour unable to fill the role.
Corbyn continued to refuse to step down as leader, saying that the ballot had "no constitutional legitimacy" and he would not "betray" the members that elected him in the 2015 leadership election. In order to challenge an incumbent leader, a serving Labour MP needed to gather the support of at least 20% of Labour MPs (15% of Labour MPs and also MEPs being required if a leader has resigned). Angela Eagle, a former member of his Shadow Cabinet who resigned after Benn's sacking, was said on 30 June to have the number of backers required to launch a challenge. Separate meetings to discuss the situation were held by Corbyn and Watson with UNITE trade union leader Len McCluskey on 5 July.
Following the sacking of Hilary Benn, and the vote of no confidence in Corbyn's leadership, over 100,000 new members were reported to have joined the Labour Party by 8 July, taking membership numbers above 500,000. Both supporters and opponents of Corbyn signed up new members.
By 8 July there were no declared leadership challengers, Corbyn had not resigned, and both his supporters and some critics considered that he was in a good position to win any leadership vote. Corbyn challenged the rebels to stand against him, and it was reported that Eagle had secured the support of at least the requisite number of nominations needed to launch a leadership bid. The following day, Eagle announced that she would formally launch her campaign on 11 July. In her speech, Eagle said "Jeremy Corbyn is unable to provide the leadership this huge task needs."
The party's National Executive Committee (NEC) meeting on 12 July was expected to consider the arrangements for an election. The arrangements were decided by secret ballot with the vote 18 to 14 in favour of the incumbent leader being automatically on the ballot. The NEC also decided to not allow members who joined the party in the past six months to vote in the leadership election, so the approximately 130,000 new members who had joined since the European Union referendum would be unable to vote. Instead registered supporters were given a period of two days to register, at a fee of £25, to be entitled to vote. Additionally the NEC ruled that local Constituency Labour Parties should not hold members' meetings during the leadership election period.
There was pressure before the nominations close on 20 July for one of the two challengers, either Smith or Eagle, to withdraw in order to unify the anti-Corbyn campaign. The two agreed between themselves that whoever had fewest nominations from MPs/MEPs by the end of the working day on 19 July would withdraw in favour of the other. Eagle, with about 20 fewer nominations, did so, leaving Smith as the only challenger to Corbyn. She pledged her support for his campaign. Smith explained that his decision to run for leader was partly because the future of the Labour party was at risk, stating that the "possibility of split is dangerously real".
The leadership race caused a crisis ("fighting for its life") for the Labour Party according to Andrew Rawnsley, chief political commentator for The Observer. On 24 July 2016, he discussed the "mutiny" against Corbyn by the majority of MPs who voted against him in the no confidence motion but warned that they "do not have the backing of a large chunk of the party selectorate [party members who will vote in the leadership election] that picks the leader... [but that selectorate] is wildly unrepresentative of the voters that Labour must persuade if the party is to survive as a plausible opposition, never mind become a viable competitor for power."
Leadership contender Owen Smith had supported the campaign for Britain to remain in the European Union, in the referendum on Britain's membership in June 2016. During an interview with the BBC, Smith opined that those who had voted with the Leave faction had done so "because they felt a sense of loss in their communities, decline, cuts that have hammered away at vital public services and they haven't felt that any politicians, certainly not the politicians they expect to stand up for them, the Labour Party, has been standing up for them."
The election was conducted under a pure "one member, one vote" (OMOV) system, as had been the case at the 2015 leadership election. Candidates would be elected by members and registered and affiliated supporters, who all receive a maximum of one vote and all votes will be weighted equally. This means that, for example, members of Labour-affiliated trade unions need to register as affiliated Labour supporters to vote.
To stand, challengers needed to be nominated by at least 20% of the combined membership of the Parliamentary Labour Party (PLP) and European Parliamentary Labour Party, i.e. 51 MPs/MEPs, at the time. As the incumbent, Jeremy Corbyn, by decision of the National Executive Committee, was automatically included on the ballot. The vote, as in previous elections, was held under the alternative vote (instant-runoff) system.
The election itself was overseen by Electoral Reform Services.
The Special Conference at the end of the Collins Review concluded that all selection timetables should be, once started, as short as possible. The Collins Report also states: "The NEC should agree the detailed procedures for leadership elections including issues regarding registration, fees, and freeze dates". The party required members to hold six months' continuous party membership on the freeze date to be eligible to take part in a selection.
The meeting of Labour's National Executive Committee on 12 July 2016 set a timetable and procedure for the election. Though the party confirmed the timetable would be released when the leadership contest process begins on Thursday 14 July, the timetable was leaked immediately following the NEC meeting. The voting eligibility freeze date for membership is 12 January 2016 – those who joined after that date will have to pay £25 to sign up as a registered supporter in the two day window during the week of 18 July. Members of affiliated trade unions, socialist societies and other affiliated organisations who individually sign up as an "affiliated supporter" to the Labour Party must have been a member of that organisation on or before 12 January 2016; the deadline to sign up as an "affiliated supporter" is 8 August 2016. Affiliated supporters already on the Party's membership system will be eligible to vote, subject to affiliates reconfirming their eligibility. Originally, many people sought to join organisations such as UNITE to gain a vote without paying Labour's £25 "registered supporter" fee; however, due to the freeze date for voter eligibility also applying to "affiliated supporters", this union route will not be a possible way to gain a vote.
On 8 August 2016 the High Court decided that the decision to disbar from voting members who joined in the six month preceding the election being called was contrary to the Labour Party Rule Book, and they were entitled to vote. This decision cast some doubt on the election timetable. In a critical passage of his judgement, Mr Justice Hickinbottom found that "Furthermore, there is no evidence of any suggestion by the Party, the NEC, the Collins Review or any member of the Party that a freeze date could be retrospective, until the Procedures Paper that Mr McNicol prepared for the 12 July 2016 NEC meeting. Indeed, the very opposite." The Procedures sub-committee of the NEC immediately appealed the decision, and on 12 August 2016 the Court of Appeal reversed the High Court's decision. It concluded that under the party rules, the NEC had discretion to set any reasonable criteria for members to vote, and that there was no reason why an eligibility freeze date could not be in the past.
The election timetable was as follows:
- Tuesday 12 January 2016 – Members must join the Labour Party on or before this date to vote in the leadership election.
- Tuesday 12 July 2016 – Timetable agreed.
- Thursday 14 July 2016 – Timetable published.
- Monday 18 July 2016 – EPLP and PLP briefing, followed by EPLP and PLP hustings. Registered supporters applications open.
- Monday 18 July 2016 (19:00) – EPLP and PLP nominations open.
- Wednesday 20 July 2016 (17:00) – EPLP and PLP nominations close and supporting nominations open. Last date to join as registered supporter.
- Thursday 21 July 2016 (12:00) – Deadline for validly nominated candidates to consent to nomination.
- Friday 22 July 2016' – Hustings period opens.
- Monday 8 August 2016 (12:00) – Final date for membership arrears to be paid in full. Final date for updated affiliated supporter lists to be renewed.
- Monday 15 August 2016 (12:00) – Supporting nominations close.
- Monday 22 August 2016 – Ballot mailing despatched.
- Wednesday 14 September 2016 (12:00) – Last date for electronic ballot reissues.
- Friday 16 September 2016 – Hustings period closes.
- Wednesday 21 September 2016 (12:00) – Ballot closes.
- Saturday 24 September 2016 (11:45) – Special conference to announce result.
There had been some doubt over whether Corbyn would have been able to stand if he had needed to obtain 51 nominations like his challengers, as only 40 MPs supported him in the no-confidence motion and because the demand for Corbyn's resignation was the "majority position" of Labour's 20 MEPs.
On 12 July the National Executive Committee ruled that as the incumbent, Corbyn would automatically be included on the ballot by an 18–14 vote. The party's lawyers, GRM Law, as well as James Goudie, had argued the party's constitution required Corbyn to secure nominations, but conflicting legal advice obtained by the Labour Party leadership and UNITE from Doughty Street Chambers and Michael Mansfield, respectively, argued Corbyn should not need to obtain MP/MEP support to be placed on the ballot of a leadership election, as the party rules only mentioned the need for challengers to receive nominations, and did not explicitly specify the same requirement for the incumbent.
During the last leadership challenge on an incumbent leader (in 1988, with Corbyn a supporter of the challenge), the incumbent, Neil Kinnock, did seek and obtain nominations, but some commentators, including BBC's Andrew Neil, believed that Kinnock may have done this voluntarily just to show his strength. Some political analysts had predicted that Corbyn would have had difficulty getting the requisite number of nominations from MPs/MEPs to stand, if this had been a requirement for his name to appear on the ballot.
The results of an Ipsos MORI survey released on 14 July 2016 indicated that 66% of those surveyed (representative of 18+ adults in Great Britain) believed that the Labour party needed a new leader before the 2020 elections. In addition, only 23 percent believed that Corbyn would make a good Prime Minister, while the then-incumbent Theresa May had an approval rating of 55 percent.
As the incumbent, Jeremy Corbyn, following an interpretation by the National Executive Committee of disputed Labour Party rules, was automatically included on the ballot. To be placed on the ballot, challengers to the Leader had to be nominated by at least 20% of the combined membership of the Parliamentary Labour Party (PLP) and European Parliamentary Labour Party, i.e. 51 MPs/MEPs. An MP or MEP who nominates a candidate does not have to subsequently support, or vote for, that candidate. In the past, some MPs have stated that they nominated only to ensure that a candidate (such as Corbyn) got onto the ballot paper; however, it was (correctly) expected that Corbyn would face a single "unity candidate" after Angela Eagle and Owen Smith agreed that the person with fewer nominations from MPs/MEPs should step aside (which Eagle later did).
In an interview, Smith offered the following endorsement of the former contender: "Angela is a star in the Labour firmament. She will be at my right hand throughout this contest and if I am successful, Angela will be alongside me as my right hand woman." He explained that his decision to run for leader was partly because the future of the Labour party was at risk, stating that the "possibility of split is dangerously real".
A High Court legal challenge, brought by Labour donor and former parliamentary candidate Michael Foster contesting the NEC's interpretation of the rules to allow Corbyn to be a candidate without having to secure nominations from Labour MPs/MEPs, was heard on 26 July 2016. Corbyn applied to the court, and was accepted, to be the second defendant with his own legal team as Corbyn was "particularly affected and particularly interested in the proper construction of the rules" and that General Secretary of the Labour Party Iain McNicol was "being expected to vigorously defend a position which he regarded as incorrect prior to the NEC decision". The High Court ruled that there was no basis to challenge the NEC's decision that Corbyn should automatically be on the ballot.
Prior to her withdrawal from the race on 19 July 2016, Eagle had been nominated by 72 MPs/MEPs. By that time, Smith had been nominated by 90 MPs/MEPs. Smith received a further 82 nominations following Eagle's withdrawal in advance of the nomination deadline at 17:00 the following day. A total of 89 Labour MPs/MEPs did not nominate any candidate by 19 July; 79 MPs/MEPs did not nominate by the close of nominations.
|Candidate||Born||Constituency||Most recent position||Announced||Campaign website|
(endorsed Owen Smith)
17 February 1961
|MP for Wallasey|
|Shadow First Secretary of State;|
Shadow Secretary of State for
Business, Innovation and Skills
|11 July 2016|
Withdrew: 19 July 2016
|18/19 July: 72||28.69%|
- Hilary Benn, former Shadow Foreign Secretary; MP for Leeds Central (endorsed Angela Eagle, then Owen Smith)
- Yvette Cooper, former Shadow Home Secretary; candidate for Leader in 2015; MP for Normanton, Pontefract and Castleford (endorsed Owen Smith)
- Dan Jarvis, MP for Barnsley Central (endorsed Angela Eagle, then Owen Smith)
- Stephen Kinnock, MP for Aberavon (endorsed Angela Eagle, then Owen Smith)
- John McDonnell, Shadow Chancellor of the Exchequer; candidate for Leader in 2007 (failed to be nominated) and 2010 (withdrew); MP for Hayes and Harlington (endorsed Jeremy Corbyn)
- Lisa Nandy, former Shadow Secretary of State for Energy and Climate Change; MP for Wigan (endorsed Owen Smith)
- Keir Starmer, MP for Holborn and St Pancras; former Director of Public Prosecutions (nominated Owen Smith)
- Chuka Umunna, former Shadow Business Secretary; candidate for Leader in 2015 (withdrew); MP for Streatham (endorsed Angela Eagle, then Owen Smith)
- Tom Watson, incumbent Deputy Leader; MP for West Bromwich East
|Thursday 4 August; 19.00||Choose Labour's next Prime Minister||The Labour Party||All Nations Centre||Catrin Haf Jones (journalist, ITV Cymru Wales)|
|Thursday 11 August; 19.00||Hilton Newcastle Gateshead||Sophy Ridge (Senior Political Correspondent, Sky News)|
|Wednesday 17 August; 09.00||Victoria Derbyshire||BBC News||Nottingham Trent University||Victoria Derbyshire (presenter, Victoria Derbyshire)|
|Thursday 18 August; 19.00||Choose Labour's next Prime Minister||The Labour Party||National Conference Centre||Carl Dinnen (Political Correspondent, ITV News)|
|Monday 22 August||Debate cancelled||Channel 4||London||N/A|
|Thursday 25 August; 19.00||Choose Labour's next Prime Minister||The Labour Party||Scottish Exhibition and
|Lindsay McIntosh (Scottish Political Editor, The Times)|
|Thursday 1 September||Debate cancelled||N/A||N/A||N/A|
|Tuesday 6 September; 19.00||Faith and the Future of Labour||Good Faith Partnership/
|The Oasis Centre, Waterloo||Tim Livesey (former adviser to Archbishop Williams,|
former Chief of Staff to Ed Miliband)
|Thursday 8 September; 21.00||Question Time||BBC One||Queen Elizabeth Hall, Oldham||David Dimbleby (presenter, Question Time)|
|Wednesday 14 September; 21.00||Corbyn v Smith: The Battle for Labour||Sky News||Sky Studios, Isleworth, London||Faisal Islam (Political Editor, Sky News)|
- 1.^ Jeremy Corbyn refused to attend any debate hosted by Channel 4, Daily Mirror or The Guardian.
- 2.^ A location and media organisation were not established in time.
The polls in this section have been undertaken by media pollsters known to use industry standard polling methods.
The polls below were conducted after nominations for the leadership ballot closed.
Polling of all eligible voters
The polls below show voting intention amongst all those eligible to vote in the leadership election (Labour Party members, registered supporters and affiliated supporters).
|YouGov/The Times, 25–29 August 2016, 1,236 eligible voters|
|Total selectorate |
Polling of Labour Party councillors
The polls below asked Labour Party local councillors across the country how they planned to vote in the leadership election.
|Poll source||Date(s) administered||Sample size||Jeremy Corbyn||Owen Smith||Don't Know|
|Labour History Research/Anglia Ruskin University||21–25 July 2016||350 Labour councillors||28%||60%||11%|
Polling of Labour voters
The polls below asked Labour supporters across the country how they would vote in the leadership election if they were eligible.
|Poll source||Date(s) administered||Sample size||Jeremy Corbyn||Owen Smith||Don't Know||Would Not Vote|
|BMG Research/London Evening Standard||11–15 August 2016||334 current Labour voters||66%||34%||–||–|
|ComRes/Sunday Mirror/Independent on Sunday||10–12 August 2016||347 current Labour voters||47%||25%||28%||–|
|BMG Research/London Evening Standard||22–26 July 2016||347 current Labour voters||75%||25%||–||–|
|Opinium/The Observer||19–22 July 2016||~692 current Labour voters||54%||22%||20%||4%|
Polling of British voters
The polls below asked voters across the country how they would vote in the leadership election if they were eligible.
|Poll source||Date(s) administered||Sample size||Jeremy Corbyn||Owen Smith||Don't Know||Would Not Vote|
|BMG Research/London Evening Standard||11–15 August 2016||1,668 British residents||42%||58%||–||–|
|ComRes/Sunday Mirror/Independent on Sunday||10–12 August 2016||2,017 British residents||23%||37%||40%||–|
|BMG Research/London Evening Standard||22–26 July 2016||1,545 British residents||43%||57%||–||–|
Polling before close of nominations
The polls below were conducted before nominations for the leadership closed and therefore may include Labour politicians who will not be candidates. Polls show both free choices among all candidates and constrained choices among particular pairs of candidates.
|YouGov/The Times||15–18 July 2016||1,031 Labour Party members||58%||34%||–||–||–||–||–|
|YouGov/The Times||27–30 June 2016||1,203 Labour Party members||36%||7%||9%||4%||2%||–||3%|
Polling before the EU referendum
The polls below were conducted prior to the referendum on the United Kingdom's membership of the EU taking place. In the aftermath of this event, Jeremy Corbyn was accused by his opponents of undermining the campaign to remain in the European Union, and faced a string of significant resignations from his Shadow Cabinet.
|Hilary Benn||Andy Burnham||Yvette Cooper||Jeremy Corbyn||Angela Eagle||Dan Jarvis||John McDonnell||Lisa Nandy||Owen Smith||Tom Watson||Other/|
|YouGov/The Times||9–11 May 2016||1,031 Labour Party members||4%||10%||8%||43%||2%||9%||6%||1%||1%||2%||Undecided 8%|
|YouGov/Election Data||11–15 February 2016||1,217 members of the
Labour Party selectorate
|Candidate||Party members||Registered supporters||Affiliated supporters||Total|
National breakdowns (Full Members only)
Owen Smith rejoined the Shadow Cabinet after the general election, with Corbyn appointing him Shadow Secretary of State for Northern Ireland in June 2017.
On 23 March 2018, Corbyn sacked Smith from the Shadow Cabinet after Smith called for a second referendum on EU membership in The Guardian.
Corbyn led Labour into the 2019 general election, which saw Labour's worst election result since 1935 and a leadership election triggered. Smith announced his decision to stand down as an MP before the election, citing "personal and political reasons" in a letter to Corbyn.
- 2016 Conservative Party leadership election
- Evangelou v McNicol – the court case regarding the eligibility of new members to vote
- 2016 Green Party of England and Wales leadership election
- September 2016 UK Independence Party leadership election
- November 2016 UK Independence Party leadership election
- The total number of MPs nominating Smith includes himself as he counts towards the minimum 51 nominating MP/MEPs required in order to be eligible for election.
- Nominated Owen Smith after Angela Eagle withdrew from the race on 19 July 2016.
- Eligible members, registered and affiliated supporters of the Labour Party.
- Labour Party local councillors in 250 marginal constituencies.
- People who state that they are likely to vote Labour in the next general election.
- Residents over 18 in Great Britain.
- Labour Party members who joined before 2016 so are eligible to vote in the leadership election.
- People who are due-paying members of the Labour Party.
- Eligible members and registered supporters of the Labour Party.
- "Jeremy Corbyn earns refreshed mandate as he is re-elected Labour leader - LabourList". labourlist.org. 24 September 2016. Retrieved 24 September 2016.
- McSmith, Andy (30 June 2016). "The Jeremy Corbyn leadership challenge is reducing the most senior members of Labour to tears". The Independent. Retrieved 24 September 2016.
- Andy Mcsmith (1 July 2016). "Angela Eagle delayed Labour leadership bid because 'Jeremy Corbyn could be on the verge of resigning'". The Independent. Retrieved 1 July 2016.
- Rajeev Syal; Frances Perraudin; Nicola Slawson (27 June 2016). "Shadow cabinet resignations: who has gone and who is staying". The Guardian. Retrieved 8 July 2016.
- Asthana, Anushka; Elgot, Jessica; Syal, Rajeev (28 June 2016). "Jeremy Corbyn suffers heavy loss in Labour MPs confidence vote". The Guardian. Retrieved 28 June 2016.
- "Tom Watson tells Jeremy Corbyn he faces leadership challenge". BBC News. 27 June 2016.
- "UK opposition Labour leader Corbyn says he will not resign". CNBC. 28 June 2016.
- "Angela Eagle to announce Labour leadership bid on Monday". BBC News. 9 July 2016. Retrieved 9 July 2016.
- "Labour leadership: Angela Eagle says she can unite the party". BBC News. 11 July 2016. Retrieved 11 July 2016.
- "Labour leadership: Owen Smith to enter contest". BBC News. 13 July 2016. Retrieved 13 July 2016.
- "Jeremy Corbyn wins vote on Labour leadership rules", BBC News, 12 July 2016, retrieved 12 July 2016
- Wilkinson, Michael (12 July 2016). "Jeremy Corbyn to be automatically included on the ballot in Labour's leadership contest following NEC vote". The Telegraph. London, UK. Retrieved 19 July 2016.
If Corbyn had not been automatically allowed to stand, he may have struggled to obtain the 51 nominations necessary from Labour MPs or MEPs to stand.
- Grice, Andrew (19 July 2016). "Labour leadership election: Angela Eagle pulls out of contest to allow Owen Smith straight run at Jeremy Corbyn". The Independent. London, UK. Retrieved 19 July 2016.
- Asthana, Anushka; Elgot, Jessica (19 July 2016). "Owen Smith to face Corbyn in Labour leadership challenge". The Guardian. Retrieved 19 July 2016.
- Sparrow, Andrew; Phipps, Claire (19 July 2016). "Afternoon summary". The Guardian. Retrieved 19 July 2016.
- "Labour leftwinger Jeremy Corbyn wins place on ballot for leadership". The Guardian. 15 June 2015.
- "Labour leadership: Jeremy Corbyn elected with huge mandate". The Guardian. 12 September 2015.
- "Jeremy Corbyn Will Face A Coup 'On Day One,' Says Labour MP Simon Danczuk". The Huffington Post UK. 12 August 2015.
- "Jeremy Corbyn leadership crisis deepens as Francois Hollande urges Labour MPs to back air strikes against Isil in Syria". The Telegraph. 27 November 2015.
- "Jeremy Corbyn facing 'coup attempt' over anti-Semitism row as ministers hold talks with plotters". The Telegraph. 30 April 2016.
- Rowena Mason, Anushka Asthana (26 June 2016). "Labour crisis: how the coup against Jeremy Corbyn gathered pace". The Guardian. Retrieved 5 July 2016.
- Heather Stewart (29 June 2016). "'Saving Labour': Anti-Corbyn MPs investigate party name ownership". The Guardian. Retrieved 2 July 2016.
- Daniel Boffey (25 June 2016). "Hilary Benn seeks shadow cabinet backing to oust Corbyn". The Observer. Retrieved 5 July 2016.
- "Brexit: Hilary Benn sacked by Jeremy Corbyn as shadow foreign secretary with Labour shadow cabinet members to quit". The Telegraph. 26 June 2016.
- Charlie Cooper (2016-07-05). "Jeremy Corbyn scraps mental health minister post amid wave of Shadow Cabinet resignations News". The Independent. Retrieved 2016-07-09.
- Mark McLaughlin. "SNP makes bid to replace Labour as official opposition in House of Commons". The Independent. Retrieved 2016-07-09.
- "Labour MPs pass no-confidence motion in Jeremy Corbyn". BBC News. 28 June 2016. Retrieved 3 July 2016.
- Leadership Elections: Labour Party, House of Commons Library
- "Eagle may delay leader bid 'to give Corbyn time to quit'". BBC News. 30 June 2016.
- "Tom Watson and Jeremy Corbyn meet Unite boss". BBC News. 5 July 2016.
- Heather Stewart (8 July 2016). "Jeremy Corbyn stands defiant after Labour membership surge". The Guardian. Retrieved 8 July 2016.
- "Jeremy Corbyn supporter taunts Labour MPs over failed leadership coup". The Independent.
- "Defeated Labour rebels admit 'it's finished' as Jeremy Corbyn refuses to resign as leader". The Telegraph.
- Tom Marshall (2016-06-30). "Jeremy Corbyn issues challenge to Labour rebels to face him in leadership contest". Standard.co.uk. Retrieved 2016-07-09.
- Andy McSmith (8 July 2016), "Jeremy Corbyn could face Labour leadership challenge in next 72 hours", The Independent, retrieved 8 July 2016
- Vulliamy, Elsa (12 July 2016). "Angela Eagle leadership bid: Brick thrown through window of MP's constituency office after she challenges Jeremy Corbyn". The Independent. London, UK. Retrieved 12 July 2016.
- "Labour's NEC to decide on Jeremy Corbyn ballot rules". Bbc.co.uk. 2016-07-05. Retrieved 2016-07-12.
- "Michael Crick on Twitter: "Corbyn on ballot by 18-14"". Twitter.com. 2010-08-31. Retrieved 2016-07-12.
- Robert Peston (12 July 2016). "Corbyn opponents try to fix vote". ITV. Retrieved 14 July 2016.
- Caroline Mortimer (13 July 2016). "Fury as new members barred from voting in fresh Labour leadership contest by NEC". The Independent. Retrieved 14 July 2016.
- Ewen Macaskill (14 July 2016). "Labour grassroots rebel against NEC restrictions on leadership contest". The Guardian. Retrieved 14 July 2016.
- "Labour leadership contest – Angela Eagle withdraws from race". Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 2016-07-19.
- Asthana, Anushka (19 July 2016). "Owen Smith to face Corbyn in Labour leadership challenge". The Guardian. London, UK. Retrieved 19 July 2016.
- Rawnsley, Andrew (24 July 2016). "Labour is fighting for its life … and Jeremy Corbyn has never looked happier". The Observer. Retrieved 24 July 2016.
- "EU vote: Where the cabinet and other MPs stand". BBC News. 22 June 2016.
- Cornock, David (21 July 2016). "Owen Smith on Corbyn, leadership, devolution and Brexit". BBC Wales. BBC. Retrieved 25 July 2016.
said voters backed Brexit because they didn't feel the Labour Party stood up for them,
- Elgot, Jessica (10 July 2016). "Labour leadership contest: what are the rules?". The Guardian. Retrieved 12 July 2016.
- "A. Leadership Election 2016 – Procedural Guidelines and Timetable" (PDF). Labour Party. 14 July 2016. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 August 2016. Retrieved 15 July 2016.
- Eaton, George (12 July 2016). "Exclusive: Full timetable for Labour leadership election". Twitter. Retrieved 12 July 2016.
- Pope, Conor (13 July 2016). "Contest by conference – timetable and rules for leadership election revealed". LabourList. Retrieved 13 July 2016.
- "Liveblog: NEC meeting on leadership challenge". LabourList. 12 July 2016. Retrieved 12 July 2016.
- Eaton, George (12 July 2016). "Affiliated supporters who join between now and 8 August expected to be able to vote, says Labour source. But not confirmed". Twitter. Retrieved 13 July 2016.
- Boland, Stephanie (14 July 2016). "Labour rules the "freeze" on voter eligiblity also applies to affiliate members". New Statesman. Retrieved 14 July 2016.
- Haroon Siddique, Heather Stewart (8 August 2016). "Labour members barred from leadership ballot win right to vote". The Guardian. Retrieved 8 August 2016.
- "Labour leadership: New members win right to vote". BBC News. 8 August 2016. Retrieved 8 August 2016.
- Mr Justice Hickinbottom (8 August 2016). Between: (1) CHRISTINE EVANGELOU (2) THE REV. EDWARD MUNGO LEIR (3) HANNAH FORDHAM (4) CHRIS GRANGER (5) FM (a child by his Litigation Friend HW) Claimants - and - IAIN McNICOL (sued as a representative of all members of the Labour Party except the Claimants) (PDF) (Report). Royal Courts of Justice.  EWHC 2058 (QB) Case HQ16X02575. Retrieved 8 August 2016.
- "Labour leadership: Party to appeal against voting rights ruling". BBC News. 8 August 2016. Retrieved 8 August 2016.
- Christine Evangelou and others v Iain McNicol  EWCA Civ. 817 "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-08-13. Retrieved 2016-08-15.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- 2016 Labour Party Leadership Election "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-07-19. Retrieved 2016-09-24.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Jeremy Corbyn appeals for Labour 'calm' after death threats". BBC News. BBC. 12 July 2016. Retrieved 12 July 2016.
Jeremy Corbyn has called for "calm" and "dignity" from Labour members after leadership challenger Angela Eagle's constituency office was vandalised.
- Eaton, George (29 June 2016). "Exclusive: Labour MEPs call for Jeremy Corbyn to resign as leader". New Statesman. Retrieved 12 July 2016.
- Waugh, Paul (26 June 2016). "Exclusive: Jeremy Corbyn Automatically On Ballot In Leadership Challenge, Legal Advice Shows". Huffington Post UK. Retrieved 28 June 2016.
- Waugh, Paul (12 July 2016). "How Jeremy Corbyn Triumphed At Labour's National Executive Committee (NEC) Meeting". Huffington Post UK. Retrieved 13 July 2016.
- Mark Henderson (13 April 2016). "The Labour Party, Re leadership elections - Advice". Doughty Street Chambers. Scribd. Retrieved 10 July 2016.
- Waugh, Paul (11 July 2016). "Jeremy Corbyn Doesn't Need MPs To Fight Leadership Election, Unite's Legal Advice Claims". Huffington Post UK. Retrieved 12 July 2016.
- Bush, Stephen (28 June 2016). "Labour's unstoppable force meets its immovable object". New Statesman. Retrieved 28 June 2016.
- Andrew Neil (10 July 2016). Sunday Politics London. BBC. Event occurs at 17m08s. Retrieved 10 July 2016.
Angela Eagle: ... Neil Kinnock in 1988 ... had to get 51 nominations ... Andrew Neil: Well it is not clear he had to do it. And even Mr Kinnock cannot remember if he had to do it or whether he did it to show his strength.
- John Rentoul (18 November 2015). "Daily catch-up: the strange story of Labour's leadership election rule changes". The Independent. Retrieved 10 July 2016.
My assumption was that the incumbent would be a candidate automatically, and that the nominations gathered by Neil Kinnock against Tony Benn in 1988 were purely for show.
- McSmith, Andy (12 July 2016). "Jeremy Corbyn wins NEC vote over right to stand again for Labour leadership". The Independent. London, UK. Retrieved 12 July 2016.
- "Two in three say Labour should change leader before next General Election". Ipsos MORI. Ipsos MORI. 14 July 2016. Retrieved 18 July 2016.
- "Labour leadership: Jeremy Corbyn completes the line-up". BBC News. 15 June 2015.
- Riley-Smith, Ben (18 July 2016). "Labour leadership: Jeremy Corbyn to face single unity candidate as Angela Eagle and Owen Smith broker deal". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 19 July 2016.
- Sparrow, Andrew; Phipps, Claire (19 July 2016). "Afternoon summary". The Guardian. Retrieved 19 July 2016.
- Jessica Elgot (20 July 2016). "Jeremy Corbyn wins right to be defendant in leadership court case". The Guardian. Retrieved 20 July 2016.
- Walker, Peter; Syal, Rajeev; Mason, Rowena (28 July 2016). "Jeremy Corbyn fights off court challenge over Labour leadership ballot". The Guardian. Retrieved 29 July 2016.
- Mr Justice Foskett (28 July 2016). Between: MICHAEL FOSTER and IAIN McNICOL (1) (sued on behalf of all other members of the Labour Party except the Claimant and the Second Defendant) and THE RT HON JEREMY CORBYN MP (2) (PDF) (Report). Royal Courts of Justice.  EWHC 1966 (QB) Case HQ16X02502. Retrieved 29 July 2016.
- "Labour Leadership Election 2016". Labour.org.uk. Archived from the original on 19 July 2016. Retrieved 19 July 2016.
- Pope, Conor (20 July 2016). "Which MPs and MEPs have nominated Owen Smith?". LabourList. Retrieved 20 July 2016.
- "Which CLPs are nominating who in the 2016 Labour leadership contest?". New Statesman. 23 July 2016. Retrieved 23 July 2016.
- "Jeremy Corbyn". Labour Party. Retrieved 10 August 2016.
- "CLP Nominations". CLP Nominations on Twitter. July 2016. Retrieved 11 August 2016.
- "Vale of Clwyd's nomination is void due to a procedural error". CLP Nominations on Twitter. 9 August 2016. Retrieved 15 August 2016.
- "Owen Smith". Labour Party. Retrieved 10 August 2016.
- "Dumfriesshire CLP nominates Owen Smith. This CLP nominates together with Galloway and West Dumfries". CLP Nominations on Twitter. 11 August 2016. Retrieved 15 August 2016.
- "Jeremy Corbyn unveils new top team after resignations". BBC News. 27 June 2016. Retrieved 27 June 2016.
- Cooper, Yvette (14 July 2016). "Yvette Cooper: Both Eagle and Smith would be good leaders – but only one should go for it". LabourList. Retrieved 15 July 2016.
- Elgot, Jessica (28 June 2016). "Yvette Cooper says she won't rule out standing for Labour leader". The Guardian. Retrieved 29 June 2016.
- Ben Riley-Smith (26 June 2016). "Future Labour leadership runners and riders". Daily Telegraph.
- Eagle, Angela (11 July 2016). "Delighted to launch my campaign for the Leadership of the Labour Party angela4labourleader.org". Twitter. Retrieved 11 July 2016.
- Stewart, Heather; Asthana, Anushka (9 March 2016). "Dan Jarvis sets out his vision for Labour as leadership talk mounts". The Guardian. Retrieved 29 June 2016.
- Krishnamurty, Paul (27 June 2016). "Next Labour Leader Odds: Who can replace Jeremy Corbyn?". Betfair. Retrieved 27 June 2016.
- Rampen, Julia (26 June 2016). "John McDonnell "will never" stand for Labour leader and has a warning for rebels". New Statesman. Retrieved 27 June 2016.
- Rentoul, John (28 June 2016). "Who are the candidates who could take on Jeremy Corbyn?". The Independent. Retrieved 3 July 2016.
- Hattenstone, Simon (11 June 2016). "Chuka Umunna: 'If a vacancy came up, I certainly wouldn't rule it out'". The Guardian. Retrieved 29 June 2016.
- Kuenssberg, Laura (29 June 2016). "Watson tells me he won't stand but there will be leadership election". Twitter. Retrieved 29 June 2016.
- Silvera, Ian (27 June 2016). "Labour crisis: Tom Watson issues leadership warning to Jeremy Corbyn". International Business Times UK. Retrieved 29 June 2016.
- Willis, Amy (27 June 2016). "Who are Tom Watson and Lisa Nandy? Profiles of two main contenders for Labour leadership". Metro. Retrieved 27 June 2016.
- "Leadership Debates 2016 – The Labour Party". Archived from the original on 2016-07-31. Retrieved 2016-08-04.
- Owen Bennett (18 August 2016). "Jeremy Corbyn's Campaign Refuses To Take Part In Mirror, Channel 4 and Guardian Debates As It Believes They Are Biased Against Him". Huffington Post UK.
- "YouGov / The Times Survey Results" (PDF). YouGov. 25–29 August 2016.
- "Labour Party councillors back challenger Smith". Anglia Ruskin University. 25 July 2016. Retrieved 25 July 2016.
- "Evening Standard/BMG Poll: Majority of the British public back Owen Smith as Labour leader and Prime Minister rather than Jeremy Corbyn". BMG Research. 16 August 2016. Archived from the original on 17 August 2016. Retrieved 16 August 2016.
- "SUNDAY MIRROR/INDEPENDENT POLITICAL POLL AUGUST 2016". ComRes. 13 August 2016. Retrieved 13 August 2016.
- "Evening Standard/BMG Polling: Labour Supporters back Corbyn, but think party is failing as Opposition". BMG Research. 28 July 2016. Archived from the original on 3 August 2016. Retrieved 28 July 2016.
- Helm, Toby (23 July 2016). "Jeremy Corbyn has more than double the support of Owen Smith, poll shows". The Observer.
- "SUNDAY MIRROR/INDEPENDENT POLITICAL POLL AUGUST 2016". ComRes. 13 August 2016. Retrieved 13 August 2016.
- "YouGov / The Times Survey Results" (PDF). YouGov. 15–18 July 2016.
- "YouGov / The Times Survey Results" (PDF). YouGov. 27–30 June 2016.
- "YouGov / The Times Survey Results" (PDF). YouGov. 9–11 May 2016.
- "YouGov / Election Data Survey Results" (PDF). YouGov. 11–15 February 2016.
- "Leadership election: How Corbyn won across the UK – including in Wales - LabourList". labourlist.org. 19 October 2016. Retrieved 4 July 2017.
- "Owen Smith returns to Jeremy Corbyn's Shadow Cabinet". www.walesonline.co.uk. 14 June 2017. Retrieved 14 June 2017.
- "Labour's Owen Smith 'stood by principles' on Brexit". BBC. 24 March 2018. Retrieved 24 March 2018.
- "Former Labour leadership contender Owen Smith to stand down". BBC News. 29 October 2019. Retrieved 31 March 2020.