2019 European Parliament election in Spain

The 2019 European Parliament election in Spain was held on Sunday, 26 May 2019, as part of the EU-wide election to elect the 9th European Parliament. All 54 seats allocated to Spain as per the Treaty of Lisbon were up for election.[1] Once the United Kingdom is effectively out of the European Union in a legal basis as a result of Brexit, 5 additional seats would be allocated to Spain.[2] The election was held simultaneously with regional elections in twelve autonomous communities and local elections all throughout Spain.

2019 European Parliament election in Spain

 2014 26 May 2019 2024 

All 59[lower-alpha 1] Spanish seats in the European Parliament
Opinion polls
Registered37,248,888 2.0%
Turnout22,619,984 (60.7%)
16.9 pp
  First party Second party Third party
Leader Josep Borrell Dolors Montserrat Luis Garicano
Party PSOE PP Cs
Alliance S&D EPP ALDE
Leader since 26 February 2019 1 April 2019 29 December 2018
Leader's seat Spain Spain Spain
Last election 14 seats, 23.0% 16 seats, 26.1% 6 seats, 9.7%[lower-alpha 2]
Seats won 21 13 8
Seat change 7 3 2
Popular vote 7,369,789 4,519,205 2,731,825
Percentage 32.9% 20.2% 12.2%
Swing 9.9 pp 5.9 pp 2.5 pp

  Fourth party Fifth party Sixth party
Leader María Eugenia Rodríguez Palop Jorge Buxadé Oriol Junqueras[lower-alpha 3]
Party Podemos–IU Vox Ahora Repúblicas
Alliance GUE/NGL ECR Greens/EFA
Leader since 21 March 2019 21 April 2019 29 September 2018
Leader's seat Spain Spain Spain
Last election 11 seats, 18.0%[lower-alpha 4] 0 seats, 1.6% 3 seats, 6.1%[lower-alpha 5]
Seats won 6 4 3
Seat change 5 4 0
Popular vote 2,258,857 1,393,684 1,252,139
Percentage 10.1% 6.2% 5.6%
Swing 7.9 pp 4.6 pp 0.5 pp

Held one month after the 2019 Spanish general election, the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) of Prime Minister Pedro Sánchez scored a landslide victory—as well as the first win for the party in a European Parliament election in 15 years, also with Josep Borrell as its main candidate—by achieving 32.9% of the share and 20 seats, a result which allowed it to become the largest national delegation within the Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats. Concurrently, the opposition People's Party suffered a severe setback and scored its worst result ever in a European Parliament election, but slightly improved on its general election results by achieving 20.2% of the vote and 12 seats. Citizens (Cs), which had integrated UPyD within its lists ahead of the election, became the third most-voted party of the country, but at 12.2% and 7 seats it only slightly improved on the combined Cs–UPyD results in 2014. Unidas Podemos Cambiar Europa (English: "United We Can Change Europe"), the alliance of Podemos and United Left (IU) suffered a considerable drop from both parties' past results, being reduced to 10.1% and 6 seats. Far-right Vox performed well below expectations after disappointing results for the party in the 2019 general election, scoring 6.2% of the share and 3 seats.[3]

Afterwards, and as a result of the United Kingdom's withdrawal from the European Union coming into effect on 31 January 2020, five additional seats were allocated to Spain's MEP delegation, which were re-distributed by granting one each to PSOE, PP, Cs, Vox and Junts according to their May 2019 election results.

Electoral system

The 54 members of the European Parliament allocated to Spain as per the Treaty of Lisbon[lower-alpha 1] were elected using the D'Hondt method and a closed list proportional representation, with no electoral threshold being applied in order to be entitled to enter seat distribution. Seats were allocated to a single multi-member constituency comprising the entire national territory. Voting was on the basis of universal suffrage, which comprised all nationals and resident non-national European citizens over eighteen and in full enjoyment of their political rights.[4][5] Additionally, Spaniards abroad were required to apply for voting before being permitted to vote, a system known as "begged" or expat vote (Spanish: Voto rogado).[6] The use of the D'Hondt method might result in an effective threshold depending on the district magnitude.[7]

Outgoing delegation

Outgoing delegation in April 2019[8]
Groups Parties MEPs
Seats Total
European People's Party PP 16 17
INDEP 1[lower-alpha 6]
Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats PSOE 14 14
European United Left–Nordic Green Left Podemos 5 10
IU 4
Anova 1
Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe Cs 4 8
UPyD 1
INDEP 1[lower-alpha 7]
Greens–European Free Alliance ERC 2 5
Equo 1

Parties and candidates

The electoral law allowed for parties and federations registered in the interior ministry, coalitions and groupings of electors to present lists of candidates. Parties and federations intending to form a coalition ahead of an election were required to inform the relevant Electoral Commission within ten days of the election call. In order to be entitled to run, parties, federations, coalitions and groupings of electors needed to secure the signature of at least 15,000 registered electors; this requirement could be lifted and replaced through the signature of at least 50 elected officials—deputies, senators, MEPs or members from the legislative assemblies of autonomous communities or from local city councils. Electors and elected officials were disallowed from signing for more than one list of candidates.[4]

Below is a list of the main parties and electoral alliances which contested the election:

Candidacy Parties and
Leading candidate Ideology Previous result Ref.
Votes (%) Seats
Dolors Montserrat Conservatism
Christian democracy
26.09% 16 [9]
PSOE Josep Borrell Social democracy 23.01% 14 [10]
María Eugenia Rodríguez Palop Left-wing populism
Democratic socialism
18.01%[lower-alpha 4] 11 [11]
Cs Luis Garicano Liberalism 9.67%[lower-alpha 2] 6 [14]
Oriol Junqueras[lower-alpha 3] Secessionism
Left-wing nationalism
6.09%[lower-alpha 5] 3 [17]
Junts Carles Puigdemont Catalan independence
5.42%[lower-alpha 9] 3 [18]
CEUS Izaskun Bilbao Peripheral nationalism [20]
Jordi Sebastià Left-wing nationalism
1.92%[lower-alpha 10] 1 [21]
Jorge Buxadé Right-wing populism
National conservatism
1.57% 0 [23]


Party slogans

Party or alliance Original slogan English translation Ref.
PP « Centrados en tu futuro » "Centered on your future" [24][25]
PSOE « Siempre hacia delante » "Always forward" [24][26]
Podemos–IU « Verdades en Europa » "Truths in Europe" [24]
Cs « Vamos Europa » "Let's go Europe" [24]
Ahora Repúblicas « Impuls republicà » "Republican impulse" [24][27]
Vox « En Europa, por España » "In Europe, for Spain" [24][28]

Election debates

2019 European Parliament election debates in Spain
Date Organisers Moderator(s)     P  Present[lower-alpha 11]    S  Surrogate[lower-alpha 12]    NI  Not invited   A  Absent invitee 
PP PSOE UPCE Cs AR Junts CEUS CpE Vox Audience Refs
12 May laSexta
(El Objetivo)
Ana Pastor P
22 May RTVE
Xabier Fortes P

Opinion polls

The table below lists voting intention estimates in reverse chronological order, showing the most recent first and using the dates when the survey fieldwork was done, as opposed to the date of publication. Where the fieldwork dates are unknown, the date of publication is given instead. The highest percentage figure in each polling survey is displayed with its background shaded in the leading party's colour. If a tie ensues, this is applied to the figures with the highest percentages. The "Lead" column on the right shows the percentage-point difference between the parties with the highest percentages in a given poll. When available, seat projections are also displayed below the voting estimates in a smaller font.

Color key:

  Poll conducted after legal ban on opinion polls



Summary of the 26 May 2019 European Parliament election results in Spain
Parties and coalitions Popular vote Seats
Votes  % ±pp Total +/−
Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE)1 7,369,78932.86+9.85 21+7
People's Party (PP)1 4,519,20520.15–5.94 13–3
Citizens–Party of the Citizenry (Cs)1 2 2,731,82512.18+2.51 8+2
United We Can Change Europe (PodemosIU)3 2,258,85710.07–7.94 6–5
Vox (Vox)1 1,393,6846.21+4.64 4+4
Republics Now (Ahora Repúblicas)4 1,252,1395.58–0.51 3±0
Free for Europe (Junts)1 5 1,018,4354.54+1.04 3+1
Coalition for a Solidary Europe (CEUS)6 633,0902.82+0.89 1±0
Commitment to Europe (CpE)7 296,4911.32–0.60 0–1
Animalist Party Against Mistreatment of Animals (PACMA) 295,5461.32+0.19 0±0
Green Coalition–Citizen Europe (CV–EC) 65,5040.29New 0±0
Zero CutsThe GreensEuropean Green Group (Recortes Cero–LV–GVE) 50,0020.22+0.02 0±0
Volt Europa (Volt) 32,4320.14New 0±0
Feminist Initiative (IFem) 29,2760.13–0.02 0±0
Communists (PCPE–PCPC–PCPA) 28,5080.13–0.06 0±0
Act (PACT) 25,5280.11New 0±0
Andalusia by Herself (AxSí)8 23,9950.11–0.21 0±0
For a Fairer World (PUM+J) 21,5840.10New 0±0
Communist Party of the Workers of Spain (PCTE) 19,0800.09New 0±0
Pirates of Catalonia–European Pirates (pirates.cat/ep) 16,7550.07–0.18 0±0
Centrists for Europe (CCD–Lliures–UIJ–centrados) 15,6150.07New 0±0
Forum of Citizens (FAC) 14,1750.06–0.15 0±0
Positive Left (IZQP) 12,9390.06New 0±0
With You, We Are Democracy (Contigo) 12,4300.06New 0±0
Extremadurans (CEx–CREx–PREx) 11,8940.05+0.01 0±0
FE de las JONS–Spanish Alternative–La Falange–National Democracy (ADÑ)9 11,6990.05–0.20 0±0
Republican Alternative (ALTER) 11,0760.05±0.00 0±0
Actual Equality (IGRE) 9,0760.04New 0±0
Red Current Movement (MCR) 8,4020.04+0.01 0±0
Humanist Party (PH) 7,9470.04–0.05 0±0
Euro Latino Independent Movement (MIEL) 6,8090.03New 0±0
Internationalist Solidarity and Self-Management (SAIn) 5,5430.02–0.02 0±0
Blank ballots 216,7360.97–1.33
Total1 22,426,066 59+5
Valid votes 22,426,06699.14+0.94
Invalid votes 193,9180.86–0.94
Votes cast / turnout 22,619,98460.73+16.92
Abstentions 14,628,90439.27–16.92
Registered voters 37,248,888
Popular vote
Ahora Repúblicas
Blank ballots
Ahora Repúblicas

Distribution by European group

Summary of political group distribution in the 9th European Parliament (2019–2024)[8]
Groups Parties Seats Total  %
Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats (S&D) 21 21 35.59
European People's Party (EPP) 13 13 22.03
Renew Europe (RE) 8
9 15.25
European United Left–Nordic Green Left (GUE/NGL) 3
6 10.17
European Conservatives and Reformists (ECR) 4 4 6.78
Greens–European Free Alliance (G/EFA) 1
2 3.39
Non-Inscrits (NI) 2
3 5.08
Total 59 59 100.00

Elected legislators

The following table lists the elected legislators:


  1. Note that, once Brexit came into effect on 31 January 2020, Spain's MEP delegation was increased from 54 to 59 and applied retroactively.
  2. Results for UPyD (6.51%, 4 seats) and C's (3.16%, 2 seats) in the 2014 election.
  3. Currently in preventive detention in Soto del Real (Madrid).
  4. Results for IP (10.03%, 6 seats) and Podemos (7.98%, 5 seats) in the 2014 election.
  5. Results for EPDD (4.01%, 2 seats) and LPD (2.08%, 1 seat) in the 2014 election.
  6. Francesc de Paula Gambús i Rusca, former UDC MEP.
  7. Beatriz Becerra, former UPyD MEP.
  8. CDC was registered as an independent member within the alliance in order to allow its successor party, the PDeCAT, to be guaranteed CDC's public funding and electoral rights for the campaign.
  9. Results for CEU in the 2014 election.
  10. Results for PE in the 2014 election.
  11. Denotes a main invitee attending the event.
  12. Denotes a main invitee not attending the event, sending a surrogate in their place.
  13. Within Unidas Podemos Cambiar Europa.
  14. Within Cs.
  15. PNV only.
  16. Within CEU.


Opinion poll sources
  1. "El PSOE ganaría las elecciones europeas con más de 11 puntos de distancia sobre el PP, según el sondeo de Celeste-Tel". eldiario.es (in Spanish). 26 May 2019.
  2. "Encuesta elecciones europeas: El PSOE ganaría con 18 escaños y el PP (11-12) mejoraría respecto al 28-A". ABC (in Spanish). 26 May 2019.
  3. "#emojiPanel Europa (24M)". electomania.es (in Spanish). 24 May 2019.
  4. "#emojiPanel Europa (23M)". electomania.es (in Spanish). 23 May 2019.
  5. "#emojiPanel Europa (22M)". electomania.es (in Spanish). 22 May 2019.
  6. "#emojiPanel Europa (21M)". electomania.es (in Spanish). 21 May 2019.
  7. "El PSOE arrasa en las elecciones europeas y se consolida la división del centroderecha". El Mundo (in Spanish). 20 May 2019.
  8. "El PSOE crece en los últimos días (+2,6) y el PP consolida el segundo puesto (+1,2)". ABC (in Spanish). 20 May 2019.
  9. "Encuesta GIPEyOP: Europeas y Locales 2019". GIPEyOP (in Spanish). 20 May 2019.
  10. "El PSOE gana en Bruselas y Puigdemont logra un escaño". La Razón (in Spanish). 20 May 2019.
  11. "Elecciones europeas. Encuesta 19 de mayo de 2019" (PDF). La Razón (in Spanish). 20 May 2019. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 May 2019. Retrieved 20 May 2019.
  12. "#emojiPanel europeas (20M)". electomania.es (in Spanish). 20 May 2019.
  13. "#electoPanel europeas (19M): Puigdemont alcanza el 4% y se acerca a Ahora Repúblicas". electomania.es (in Spanish). 19 May 2019.
  14. "Sánchez revalidaría en las europeas su primer puesto a mucha distancia de Casado y Rivera". Público (in Spanish). 16 May 2019.
  15. "#electoPanel europeas (17M): Puigdemont mantiene sus dos eurodiputados con el 3,5% y subiendo". electomania.es (in Spanish). 17 May 2019.
  16. "El PSOE ganará las elecciones europeas con más de 10 puntos de distancia sobre el PP, según Celeste-Tel". eldiario.es (in Spanish). 20 May 2019.
  17. "La fortaleza de Ciudadanos puede dar la victoria a la derecha en las europeas". El Independiente (in Spanish). 16 May 2019.
  18. "El PSOE ganaría las elecciones europeas de forma holgada". 20minutos (in Spanish). 17 May 2019.
  19. "El PSOE arrasa en las europeas y el PP logra remontar tras el 28A a costa de Vox". La Información (in Spanish). 17 May 2019.
  20. "#electoPanel europeas (15M): se mantienen las tendencias". electomania.es (in Spanish). 15 May 2019.
  21. "#electoPanel europeas (13M): subida del PSOE, que roza el 25%". electomania.es (in Spanish). 13 May 2019.
  22. "El PSOE desbanca al PP como fuerza más votada en las europeas". El País (in Spanish). 18 May 2019.
  23. "#electoPanel europeas (11M): Puigdemont sube y roza el 4%, Compromis pierde su escaño". electomania.es (in Spanish). 11 May 2019.
  24. "#electoPanel europeas (9M): Puigdemont sigue subiendo y apuntala el segundo escaño". electomania.es (in Spanish). 9 May 2019.
  25. "El PSOE se impondrá el 26-M y el PP superará por 5 puntos a Ciudadanos". ABC (in Spanish). 13 May 2019.
  26. "#electoPanel europeas (7M): desplome del PP". electomania.es (in Spanish). 7 May 2019.
  27. "ElectoPanel Europeas (5M): caída del PP y Vox, suben UP y los nacionalistas". electomania.es (in Spanish). 5 May 2019.
  28. "Macrobarómetro de abril 2019. Preelectoral elecciones al Parlamento Europeo, autonómicas y municipales 2019. Bloque elecciones al Parlamento Europeo (Estudio nº 3245. Marzo-abril 2019)" (PDF). CIS (in Spanish). 9 May 2019.
  29. "ElectoPanel europeas (9A): recuperación del PP". electomania.es (in Spanish). 8 April 2019.
  30. "electoPanel europeas (2A): la separación de PNV y JxCat hace peligrar sus escaños". electomania.es (in Spanish). 2 April 2019.
  31. "Elecciones Europeas: El Mundo y Sigma Dos presentan en Madrid la segunda oleada de la macro encuesta para las europeas en seis países". Sigma Dos (in Spanish). 11 April 2019.
  32. "PSOE, PP y Vox crecen mientras Unidas Podemos y Ciudadanos caen, según las proyecciones de la Eurocámara". eldiario.es (in Spanish). 18 April 2019.
  33. "ElectoPanel europeas (26M): el PSOE sigue ganando ventaja". electomania.es (in Spanish). 26 March 2019.
  34. "ElectoPanel para europeas (19M): la bajada de Unidas Podemos daría un segundo escaño al PACMA". electomania.es (in Spanish). 19 March 2019.
  35. "ElectoPanel europeo 12M: victoria para el PSOE". electomania.es (in Spanish). 12 March 2019.
  36. "ElectoPanel Europeas (I): Ciudadanos y PSOE luchan por la victoria. Vox da el sorpasso a Podemos y se acerca al PP. PACMA logra representación". electomania.es (in Spanish). 5 March 2019.
  37. "El bloque de la investidura de Pedro Sánchez ganaría las europeas". El Mundo (in Spanish). 7 March 2019.
  38. "ElectoPanel Europeas (I): Ciudadanos y PSOE luchan por la victoria. Vox da el sorpasso a Podemos y se acerca al PP. PACMA logra representación". electomania.es (in Spanish). 3 February 2019.
  39. "El PSOE ganará las europeas por primera vez en 15 años gracias a la división de la derecha". El Español (in Spanish). 13 January 2019.
  40. "ElectoPanel elecciones europeas. Irrumpen los pequeños". electomania.es (in Spanish). 5 June 2018.
  41. "El PSOE se marca el reto de "capitalizar la desafección por la lucha PP-Cs" en el centro". El Confidencial (in Spanish). 21 May 2018.
  42. "Una encuesta de Moncloa para las europeas pronostica escaños para Vox, UPyD y PACMA". El Independiente (in Spanish). 10 April 2018.
  43. "Un estudio del PSOE le sitúa como primera fuerza en municipales y europeas". Cadena SER (in Spanish). 9 April 2018.
  44. "La primera fuerza en las europeas". PSOE (in Spanish). 9 April 2018.
  1. Presidencia del Gobierno: "Real Decreto 206/2019, de 1 de abril, por el que se convocan elecciones de Diputados al Parlamento Europeo" (PDF). Boletín Oficial del Estado (79): 33948–33950. 2 April 2019. Artículo 2. Número de diputados que se eligen. El número de diputados al Parlamento Europeo será de 54, en aplicación de lo dispuesto en el artículo 215 de la Ley Orgánica 5/1985, de 19 de junio, del Régimen Electoral General, y del artículo 3.2 de la Decisión (UE) 2018/937 del Consejo Europeo, de 28 de junio de 2018, por la que se fija la composición del Parlamento Europeo. Ello sin perjuicio de lo previsto en la disposición adicional única del presente real decreto
  2. Presidencia del Gobierno: "Real Decreto 206/2019, de 1 de abril, por el que se convocan elecciones de Diputados al Parlamento Europeo" (PDF). Boletín Oficial del Estado (79): 33948–33950. 2 April 2019. Disposición adicional única. Incremento del número de escaños asignados a España una vez sea jurídicamente efectiva la salida del Reino Unido de la Unión Europea. De conformidad con el artículo 3.2 de la Decisión (UE) 2018/937 del Consejo Europeo, una vez sea jurídicamente efectiva la salida del Reino Unido, los cinco nuevos escaños que corresponden a España serán asignados por la Junta Electoral Central a las candidaturas a las que puedan corresponder como consecuencia de la aplicación de las reglas establecidas en el artículo 216 de la Ley Orgánica 5/1985, de 19 de junio, a los resultados del proceso electoral celebrado el 26 de mayo de 2019, sin que sea necesario realizar nuevas elecciones.
  3. "El PSOE arrasa en el Parlamento Europeo con una subida de seis escaños". El Mundo (in Spanish). 26 May 2019. Retrieved 29 May 2019.
  4. "Ley Orgánica 5/1985, de 19 de junio, del Régimen Electoral General". Organic Law No. 5 of 19 June 1985. Boletín Oficial del Estado (in Spanish). Retrieved 30 January 2020.
  5. "Treaty of Lisbon amending the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty establishing the European Community". Act of 17 December 2007. Official Journal of the European Union. Retrieved 21 July 2017.
  6. Reig Pellicer, Naiara (16 December 2015). "Spanish elections: Begging for the right to vote". cafebabel.co.uk. Retrieved 17 July 2017.
  7. Gallagher, Michael (30 July 2012). "Effective threshold in electoral systems". Trinity College, Dublin. Archived from the original on 30 July 2017. Retrieved 22 July 2017.
  8. "Parlamento Europeo: Distribución de los Eurodiputados españoles en grupos parlamentarios". Historia Electoral.com (in Spanish). Retrieved 2 November 2020.
  9. "Montserrat liderará al PP en la UE para rebatir a los soberanistas". El Periódico de Catalunya (in Spanish). 1 April 2019. Retrieved 12 April 2019.
  10. "El PSOE confirma a Borrell como candidato a las europeas". El Mundo (in Spanish). 26 February 2019. Retrieved 26 February 2019.
  11. "Unidas Podemos Cambiar Europa, el nombre para las europeas de la candidatura del partido de Iglesias". El País (in Spanish). 26 May 2018. Retrieved 19 March 2019.
  12. "Pablo Bustinduy renuncia a encabezar la lista de Unidas Podemos en las europeas y será sustituido por Rodríguez Palop". eldiario.es (in Spanish). 21 March 2019. Retrieved 21 March 2019.
  13. "La JEC revisa las coaliciones para las europeas y el caso de Equo, que figura en dos a la vez" (in Spanish). Europa Press. 15 April 2019. Retrieved 15 April 2019.
  14. "Luis Garicano será el candidato de Ciudadanos a las elecciones europeas". El País (in Spanish). 29 December 2018. Retrieved 16 January 2019.
  15. "Pagaza confirma que irá en las listas de Cs a las europeas tras las negociaciones con UPyD". El Español (in Spanish). 17 February 2019. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
  16. "Ciudadanos firma un acuerdo electoral con UPyD y coloca a su líder en las listas europeas" (in Spanish). RTVE. 4 April 2019. Retrieved 29 May 2019.
  17. "Ahora Repúblicas, la marca de la candidatura de Junqueras con Bildu y BNG para las europeas". eldiario.es (in Spanish). 15 January 2019. Retrieved 19 March 2019.
  18. "Carles Puigdemont encabezará la lista de JxCat a las elecciones europeas". eldiario.es (in Spanish). 10 March 2019. Retrieved 10 March 2019.
  19. "Puigdemont podrá presentarse a las europeas: el juez estima su recurso". El Confidencial (in Spanish). 6 May 2019. Retrieved 6 May 2019.
  20. "Punto final a 15 años de alianza: PNV y PDeCAT no irán juntos a las europeas". eldiario.es (in Spanish). 21 March 2019. Retrieved 22 March 2019.
  21. "Compromís lanza su nueva coalición europea liderando una "cooperativa" del autonomismo progresista español". eldiario.es (in Spanish). 9 April 2019. Retrieved 9 April 2019.
  22. "En Marea concurrirá a las elecciones europeas junto a Compromís". Atlántico (in Spanish). 12 April 2019. Retrieved 12 April 2019.
  23. Carvajal, Álvaro (21 April 2019). "Vox ficha a Hermann Tertsch para las elecciones europeas y sitúa como cabeza de lista a Jorge Buxadé". El Mundo.
  24. "Lemas de campaña para las elecciones europeas, autonómicas y municipales". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). 22 May 2019. Retrieved 6 December 2019.
  25. "'Centrados en tu futuro', eslogan del PP para las próximas elecciones" (in Spanish). Antena 3. 30 April 2019. Retrieved 6 December 2019.
  26. ""Siempre hacia delante", lema de la campaña electoral del PSOE para el 26M". Expansión (in Spanish). 6 May 2019. Retrieved 6 December 2019.
  27. "Los partidos arrancan la campaña para las europeas con la vista puesta en el futuro del bloque" (in Spanish). RTVE. 10 May 2019. Retrieved 6 December 2019.
  28. "Vox rectifica y da un volantazo a su política de comunicación". El Mundo (in Spanish). 9 May 2019. Retrieved 6 December 2019.
  29. "'El objetivo' organiza esta noche el primer debate con candidatos al Parlamento Europeo en laSexta". El Periódico de Catalunya (in Spanish). 12 May 2019. Retrieved 13 May 2019.
  30. "'Supervivientes: Conexión Honduras' anota un magnífico 23,2% frente al cine de Antena 3 (14,2%)". FormulaTV (in Spanish). 13 May 2019. Retrieved 13 May 2019.
  31. "Debate a nueve en RTVE: 2 horas, 3 bloques y minuto de oro para cada partido". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). 20 May 2019. Retrieved 23 May 2019.
  32. "'La que se avecina' conquista a un estupendo 18,1% frente al buen 14,1% de 'La Voz Senior'". FormulaTV (in Spanish). 23 May 2019. Retrieved 13 May 2019.
  33. "Electoral Results Consultation. European Parliament. May 2019. National totals". Ministry of the Interior (in Spanish). Retrieved 26 September 2019.
  34. "Elecciones Europeas 26 de mayo de 2019". Historia Electoral.com (in Spanish). Retrieved 8 February 2020.