2019–2024 Sudanese transition to democracy
Omar al-Bashir overthrew the democratically elected government of Sadiq al-Mahdi in 1989 and was himself overthrown in the April 2019 Sudanese coup d'état, in which he was replaced by the Transitional Military Council (TMC) after several months of sustained street protests. Following further protests and the 3 June Khartoum massacre, the TMC and the Forces of Freedom and Change (FFC) alliance agreed on 5 July 2019 to a 39-month transition process to return to democracy, including the creation of executive, legislative and judicial institutions and procedures.
On 17 July, the TMC and FFC signed a written form of the agreement. The Darfur Displaced General Coordination opposed the 5 July verbal deal and the Sudan Revolutionary Front, the National Consensus Forces and the Sudanese Journalists Network opposed the 17 July written deal. On 4 August 2019, the Draft Constitutional Declaration was initially signed by Ahmed Rabee for the FFC and by the deputy head of the TMC, Mohamed Hamdan Dagalo ("Hemetti"), in the presence of Ethiopian and African Union mediators, and it was signed more formally by Rabee and Hemetti on 17 August in the presence of international heads of state and government.
The transition was interrupted on 25 October 2021 when the Sudanese military, led by General Abdel Fattah al-Burhan, took control of the government in a military coup. On 21 November 2021, al-Burhan freed prime minister Abdalla Hamdok from house arrest and the two signed a deal that re-instated Hamdok as prime minister and promised to release political prisoners. However, Hamdok resigned on 2 January 2022 amid continuing protests.