2019–2024 Sudanese transition to democracy

The 2019–2024 Sudanese transition to democracy is an ongoing democratic transition in Sudan that began in July 2019.

Omar al-Bashir overthrew the democratically elected government of Sadiq al-Mahdi in 1989[1] and was himself overthrown in the April 2019 Sudanese coup d'état, in which he was replaced by the Transitional Military Council (TMC) after several months of sustained street protests.[2] Following further protests and the 3 June Khartoum massacre, the TMC and the Forces of Freedom and Change (FFC) alliance agreed on 5 July 2019 to a 39-month transition process to return to democracy, including the creation of executive, legislative and judicial institutions and procedures.[3]

On 17 July,[4] the TMC and FFC signed a written form of the agreement.[5] The Darfur Displaced General Coordination[6] opposed the 5 July verbal deal and the Sudan Revolutionary Front,[7] the National Consensus Forces[8] and the Sudanese Journalists Network[9] opposed the 17 July written deal. On 4 August 2019, the Draft Constitutional Declaration[10][11] was initially signed by Ahmed Rabee for the FFC and by the deputy head of the TMC, Mohamed Hamdan Dagalo ("Hemetti"), in the presence of Ethiopian and African Union mediators,[12] and it was signed more formally by Rabee and Hemetti on 17 August in the presence of international heads of state and government.[13]

The transition was interrupted on 25 October 2021 when the Sudanese military, led by General Abdel Fattah al-Burhan, took control of the government in a military coup. On 21 November 2021, al-Burhan freed prime minister Abdalla Hamdok from house arrest and the two signed a deal that re-instated Hamdok as prime minister and promised to release political prisoners.[14] However, Hamdok resigned on 2 January 2022 amid continuing protests.


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