2022–2023 Peruvian protests

Since December 2022, supporters of the ousted president of Peru, Pedro Castillo,[24][25][26] have engaged in a series of political protests against the government of Dina Boluarte and the Congress of Peru. The demonstrations were organized by social organizations and indigenous peoples who felt they experienced political disenfranchisement, specifically on the politically left-wing to far left.[27][28][29][30] The protests have no defined leadership and were instead organized by grassroots movements.[31] Castillo was ousted after his dismissal by Congress and arrest for having announced the dissolution of Congress, the intervention of the state apparatus and the establishment of an "emergency government", which has been characterized as a self-coup attempt. Among the main demands of the demonstrators is the dissolution of Congress, the resignation of the current president Dina Boluarte, new general elections, the release of Castillo and the installation of a constituent assembly.[28][32] It was also reported that some of the protesters have declared themselves in an insurgency.[33][34][35]

2022–2023 Peruvian political protests
Part of the 2017–present Peruvian political crisis
Top to bottom, left to right:
Protesters in Lima draped with Peruvian flags and waving Wiphalas on 12 December, demonstrations in Huancayo on 9 December, protests outside where Castillo was detained at la Prefectura
Date7 December 2022 – present (2022-12-07 – present)
(1 month, 2 weeks and 6 days)
Caused byImpeachment and arrest of Pedro Castillo after the self-coup attempt
MethodsProtests, blockades, demonstrations, civil disobedience, civil resistance, strike action, riots
Parties to the civil conflict

Anti-government protestors

    • National Assembly of the Peoples
    • Agrarian and Rural Front of Peru
    • Central Única Nacional de Rondas Campesinas
    • ONAMIAP [es]
    • National Front of Carriers and Drivers of Peru
    • Ayacucho People's Defense Front
    • Departmental Federation of Cusco Workers (FDTC)[2]
    • Túpac Amaru Cusco Agrarian Revolutionary Federation (FARTAC)[2]
    • Cusco University Federation (FUC)[2]
    • SUTEP[2]
    • Cusco Regional Youth Assembly (Arejo)[2]
    • CGTP[3]
    • CUT[4]

Supported by:

Lead figures

Decentralized leadership (various social leaders)

Death(s)60 civilians[19]
1 officer[20]

Right-wing groups and the Boluarte government have opposed the protests and have used the terruqueo to label certain demonstrators as terrorists, which dates back to the internal conflict in Peru.[36] The use of the terruqueo to label protesters as terrorists has provided impunity to authorities, increasing the risk of violence.[36][37] The Boluarte government announced a national state of emergency on 14 December, removing some constitutional protections from citizens, including the rights preventing troops from staying within private homes and buildings, the freedom of movement, the freedom of assembly, and "personal freedom and security" for 30 days.[38][39] The response of the Boluarte government and Peruvian authorities was criticized by human rights non-governmental organizations,[40][41] with two massacres occurring; the Ayacucho massacre and Juliaca massacre. The government's inclusion of the Peruvian Armed Forces in responding to the protests was also criticized due to the history of troops killing protesters with impunity.[21] The politicization of the armed forces also raised concerns of a developing civilian-military government in Peru.[42][43]

Multiple ministers have resigned from Boluarte's cabinet throughout the series of protests following acts of violence perpetrated by authorities.[44][45] Attorney General of Peru Patricia Benavides announced investigations on 10 January 2023 for the alleged crimes of genocide, aggravated homicide and serious injuries against President Dina Boluarte, Prime Minister Alberto Otárola, Minister of the Interior Víctor Rojas and Minister of Defense Jorge Chávez.[46]

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