5 Commando (Democratic Republic of the Congo)
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|5 Commando ANC|
|Country||Democratic Republic of the Congo|
|Commander||Mike Hoare (1964 - 9 Dec 65)|
|Commander||John Peters (9 Dec 65 - 26 Mar 67)|
Need for mercenaries
In December 1963, a Communist-inspired rebellion broke out in the Congo province of Kwilu. It was initially a tribal dispute but grew to a challenge against the Central Government. Although it remained relatively minor, it marked the start of a spreading wave of rebellion against the then current Congo central government. Rebellion spread, and in Kivu, the leftist rebels inspired by the late Patrice Lubumba had established a Committee for National Liberation. Earlier in 1964, Moïse Tshombe returned from self-exile in Spain and declared himself as the only person who could bring about unity between the warring factions. His popularity and political acumen lead him to being appointed as Prime Minister on 6 July 1964. By August the rebellion had turned to limited civil war and Simba rebels were marching on Stanleyville, taking control of the city on 5 August 1964. The routing of the ANC and capitulation of the capital city of Orientale Province came as a shock to the government, the Belgium Colonial powers as well as to the United States. However, unlike the secession uprising of 1961, the United Nations and the United States showed no appetite for any direct intervention to repel the growing rebellion and also, Tshombe was aware that the rebellion could not be put down by the Armée Nationale Congolaise alone. Based on Tshombe's 1961 experiences in Katanga, as well as the American reluctance for direct involvement, the solution lay in mercenary support once again.
Recruitment and formation
In July 1964 Jerry Puren (a former mercenary officer in the Katangese Air Force) started the process of recruiting mercenaries to serve in support of the Congolese Army on request of the Congolese Prime Minister Moïse Tshombe. Puren put out the word in South Africa and alerted 200 men of possible employment as mercenaries. The ex-British military officer, Major "Mad" Mike Hoare had known Tshombe and had served as one of his officers in 1961 was the designated commander for the mercenary force. Puren was to be in charge of air operations. Second in command was former executive officer of the Rhodesian Special Air Services, Alastair Wickes who had also served with both Hoare and Tshombe in 1961.
Recruitment centres were established in South Africa as well as in both North and Southern Rhodesia. Hoare placed newspaper ads in the South Africa Johannesburg Star newspaper as well as in Salisbury newspapers (modern Harare, Zimbabwe) calling upon physically fit white men "...capable of marching 20 miles per day and who were fond of combat and were "tremendous romantics" to join 5 Commando. Contracts were for six months and basic pay was advertised at US$280 per month plus US$420 danger pay and 37,000 Congolese francs as monthly pocket money. NCOs received basic pay of US$400 and senior officers US$1,100 per month. Compensation of US$19,000 was payable to next of kin in the event of death. The mercenaries followed a business approach to their services, with contracts which included clauses related to contract renewal terms, danger pay and insurance in the event of death. While pay did not solely motivate them, they received fair, but not overly generous compensation for their services. Few managed to make sufficient money to become financially independent on expiry of their contracts, often supplementing their pay with looting and theft.
"Adventurers" from South Africa, many of whom had fought with Moise Tshombe in the secession of Katanga Province signed up, as did recruits from Rhodesia and Nyasaland. Congolese and other African states deeply resented the recruitment of white-supremest South Africans and Rhodesians and Tshombe frequently assured the OAU that he would replace the white mercenaries with African replacements as soon as they could be recruited and trained. 5 Commando eventually comprised volunteers from South Africa, Rhodesia, United Kingdom, Belgium and Germany (of which the Germans were mostly Second World War veterans who arrived in the Congo wearing Iron Crosses). Hoare described the men as being of amazingly low standard with a "..high proportion of alcoholics, drunks, booze artists, bums and layabouts".
Organisationally, 5 Commando was divided into eight sub-units, designated as 51 to 58 Commando, with two officers and three sergeants per sub-unit. These were in effect reinforced platoon sized units. The first orders issued to Hoare by the chief of the ANC, Maj. Gen. Joseph Desire Mobutu instructed Hoare to: (a.) Deploy a company of 200 immediately to Kamina with the mission to retake Manono, Albertville, Fizi and Uvira. (2.) Designate 300 volunteers formed into six platoons for the six mobile groups that had been planned and (3.) Assign 500 volunteers in company with elements of the ANC to immediately retake Stanleyville. By 2 September 1961 recruiting had stopped as 1,000 recruits had been signed up, but the facilities, training and organisation of the Commando made the attainment of the first orders highly unlikely.
The Belgian government dispatched Colonel Frederic Vandewalle to the Congo and during a meeting with Tshombe, Vandewalle made clear that he would not tolerate political interference with military operations and he was given authority to work directly with the Belgian logistics units, the CIA’s air force, and the mercenaries. This meant that the Belgian logistics units were effectively funding 5 Commando and providing weapons, ammunition, trucks and uniforms. After a few weeks of training, 5 Commando went into combat.
Men from 5 Commando did not care too much for night operations or for off-road movement. Their preferred means of movement was via their Jeeps and armoured cars. A combat-group of 100 men, known as 'Force John-John,' lead by John Peters was frequently used to lead advances and initiate attacks. The rapidly trained but often poorly organized Commando proved surprisingly effective against the Simba's, crushing the Simba uprising in two months.
5 Commando played a significant role in rescuing hostages, particularly European hostages, from Simba rebels. These actions frequently made headlines in Europe and made the mercenaries popular heroes for a limited period of time. However, the mercenaries were not above searching bodies for cash or blowing bank safes in Stanleyville and elsewhere to supplement their contracted wages!
The commando received ongoing support from the United States via the CIA in the form of air support to operations as well as by providing and crewing Swift boats for operations on Lake Tanganyika. The boats were used in support of 5 Commando (often under 5 Commando command) and were crewed by Miami-Cuban, anti-Castro crews, recruited by and paid for the CIA. Washington insisted that there be "no overt relationship with the mercenaries," but it was evident that this relationship between the CIA and 5 Commando could not be kept secret. This was further evidenced by frequent meetings between Mike Hoare and later John Peters and the CIA Congo Station Chief, Larry Devlin. In addition to tactical support, the United States provided F-250 trucks and 7-ton cargo vehicles for operational use by the mercenaries.
Alleged war crimes
Military coup and ousting of Tshombe
5 Commando became highly efficient in working with the ANC Congolese troops and they cleared eastern Congo of Simba rebels and almost captured Che Guevara in his camp, forcing him to escape to Tanzania, but these victories came at a political cost. On 13 October 1965, Congolese President Joseph Kasa-Vubu relieved Prime Minister Tshombe of his duties and replaced him with Évariste Kimba, considering Tshombe as being too ambitious and very unpopular in the country as well as within neighbouring African states. Mobutu shortly thereafter removed both President Kasa-Vubu and Prime Minister Kimba in a coup, appointing himself as president. Tshombe had been a friend of, and protector to 5 and 6 Commando and his ousting immediately caused uncertainty and insecurity within 5 Commando. Jerry Puren left the Congo with Tshombe for exile in Belgium, Mike Hoare and Alistair Wicks did not renew their contracts and left the Congo. John Peters, then commanding officer of 5 Commando continued to pledge his—and the unit's—loyalty to the government and continued operations in southern Congo.
Jerry Puren, once in Belgium was informed of a plan to reinstall Tshombe as Prime Minister. The Baka Regiment, together with the mercenary commandos lead by Jean Schramme as well as that of Bob Denard had committed to support the plan. Puren refused to take part in the counter-coup and Mike Hoare, Alistair Wicks and John Peters as well as Hugh van Oppen (Peters and van Oppen were still serving members of 5 Commando) were approached to support the revolt but all refused. On 23 July, the Baku Regiment of the ANC as well as 11, 12, 13 and 14 Commandos revolted in support of the exiled Tshombe, killing the commander of the ANC and taking control of the radio station in Stanleyville. 6 Commando, lead by Bob Denard opposed the uprising and notified the government, calling for support to put down the uprising. A stalemate ensued in Stanleyville until September 1966, when Denard attacked the Katanga units in the city. 5 Commando re-deployed from southern Congo in support of 6 Commando, to cover any Katanga escape routes from the city. A truce was negotiated and the Katanga troops not killed were given amnesty, while officers were transported to prisons in Elisabethville. The rebellion had failed and Mobutu remain secure as President. The failed rebellion did however reinforced the perception of the loyalty of 5 and 6 Commando towards Mobutu.
After this failed revolt, Puren still in Belgium, initiated his own plan to reinstall Tshombe; selecting Jean Schramme (10 Commando) to lead the second revolt. After much planning and including Denard in the planning, Schramme launched surprise attacks on Stanleyville, Bakavu and Kindu. Stanleyville and Bakavu were taken with little resistance but the mercenaries faced strong resistance in Kindu. The ANC forces recovered Stanleyville, executing a number of mercenaries with Schramme withdrawing from the city to establish a stronghold in Bakavu. Mobutu issued an ultimatum, ordering Schramme to evacuate Bakavu within ten days. The ANC attacked on expiry of the ultimatum and on 5 November 1966 Schramme, together with 150 mercenaries, 800 Katanga soldiers and 1,500 women and children fled across the Rwandan border and were disarmed and interred by the Rwandan military at Shangugu. The second mercenary revolt had also collapsed. Elsewhere in other skirmishes, many mercenaries were massacred and the surviving European mercenaries were evacuated by the Red Cross.
Notes and references
- Tshombe had lead the secession of the State of Katanga in July 1960 which collapsed after nearly three years of intermittent fighting with the Congolese National Army and United Nations Operation in the Congo. It was here that Tshombe had encountered the mercenary groups lead by Jean Schramme, Jerry Puren (also spelled as Gerry Puren) and Mike Hoare.
- Hoare had commanded 4 Commando during the Katanga secession.
- Peters had been commander of 53 Commando prior to Hoare leaving the Congo.
- van Oppen was earmarked to replace Lt.Col. John Peters as the commander of 5 Commando but he was murdered on 13 May 1966 for allegedly supporting the planned revolt.
- Dodenhoff 1969, pp. 44.
- Dodenhoff 1969, pp. 45.
- Dodenhoff 1969, pp. 46.
- Hudson 2012, pp. 33.
- Dodenhoff 1969, pp. 47-49.
- Hudson 2012, pp. 35.
- Dodenhoff 1969, pp. 49.
- "Obituary: Mike Hoare - Living Dangerously". The Economist.
- Dodenhoff 1969, pp. 50.
- Baker 2013, pp. 97-98.
- Dodenhoff 1969, pp. 51.
- Hoare 2008, pp. 66.
- Dodenhoff 1969, pp. 52.
- Baker 2013, pp. 95.
- Geraghty 2007, pp. 47.
- Hollway, Don (8 February 2019). "Mad Mike and His Wild Geese". HistoryNet.
- Geraghty 2007, pp. 48.
- Geraghty 2007, pp. 50.
- Devlin 2007, pp. 228.
- Devlin 2007, pp. 249-250.
- Smith 2012, pp. 257.
- Devlin 2007, pp. 228, 251-2.
- Smith 2012, pp. 198.
- Nzongola-Ntalaja 2007, p. 135.
- Gleijeses 1994, p. 79.
- Hudson 2012, pp. 57.
- Hudson 2012, pp. 62.
- Wing 2013, pp. 16.
- Baker, Patrick S. (2013). "Mercenaries and the Congo Crisis". 2 (1 Winter 2013 (Edited and Revised May 2015)). Saber and Scroll. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.874.8627. Cite journal requires
- Devlin, Larry (2007). Chief of station Congo: A memoir of 1960-67. New York: Public Affairs. ISBN 978-1-58648-405-7.
- Dodenhoff, George H. (1969). "The Congo: A case study of mercenary employment". Naval War College Review , April 1969. U.S. Naval War College Press. 21 (8).
- Geraghty, Tony (2007). Guns for Hire: The inside story of freelance soldiering (1st ed.). London: Piatkus Books Ltd. ISBN 978-0-7499-5145-0.
- Gleijeses, Piero (April 1994). ""Flee! The White Giants Are Coming!": The United States, the Mercenaries, and the Congo, 1964–65" (PDF). Diplomatic History. 18 (2): 207–37. doi:10.1111/j.1467-7709.1994.tb00611.x. ISSN 0145-2096. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 January 2018. Retrieved 13 August 2014.
- Hoare, Mike (2008). Congo Mercenary. Boulder, Co.: Paladin. ISBN 978-1-58160-639-3.
- Hudson, Andrew (2012). Congo Unravelled: Military operations from Independence to the Mercenary Revolt, 1960–68. Helion and Company. ISBN 978-1907677632.
- Nzongola-Ntalaja, Georges (2007). The Congo, From Leopold to Kabila: A People's History (3rd ed.). New York: Palgrave. ISBN 9781842770535.
- Smith, Ivan (2012). Mad dog killers: The story of a Congo mercenary. West Midlands: Helion and Co. Ltd. ISBN 978-1-920143-51-0.
- Wing, Lt.Cdr. Ian (29 March 2013). "Private Military Companies and Operations". Land Warfare Studies Centre. Archived from the original on 29 March 2013. Retrieved 17 September 2017.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
In popular culture
- The film The Wild Geese, made in 1978: directed by Andrew V. McLaglen and starring Richard Burton, Roger Moore, Richard Harris, and Hardy Krüger was based on the formation and tribulations of Mike Hoare and 5 Commando.
Further reading / viewing
- Packham, Eric S. (1996). Freedom and Anarchy (illustrated ed.). Nova Publishers. ISBN 9781560722328.
- Video: Mercenaries in The Congo Crisis 1964: Mad Mike Hoare's 5 Commando
- List of members of 5 Commando may be found at this website: http://www.mercenary-wars.net/congo/list-of-congo-soldiers.html