Abrahamic religions

The Abrahamic religions, also sometimes referred to as Abrahamism,[citation needed] are a group of monotheistic religions that strictly endorse worship of the God of Abraham. These most notably include Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, as well as the Baháʼí Faith, Samaritanism, the Druze Faith, and others. The namesake for this group's identity is Abraham, a Hebrew patriarch and prophet[2][3] who is extensively mentioned in many prominent Abrahamic scriptures, such as the Bible, the Quran, and the Kitáb-i-Aqdas.[3][4]

Symbols commonly used to represent the three largest Abrahamic religions, from top to bottom: the star and crescent used to represent Islam,[n 1] the Christian cross used to represent Christianity, and the Star of David used to represent Judaism.

Jewish tradition claims that the Twelve Tribes of Israel are descended from Abraham through his son Isaac and grandson Jacob, whose sons collectively formed the nation of the Israelites in Canaan; Islamic tradition claims that twelve Arab tribes known as the Ishmaelites are descended from Abraham through his son Ishmael in Arabia; Bahá'í tradition claims that Baháʼu'lláh was a descendant of Abraham through his wife Keturah.[2][5][6][7] After a century of archaeological investigation, no evidence has been found for these historical patriarchs.[8] Most scholars believe the story of Abraham originated in the 6th century BCE, and that the Book of Genesis does not represent historical events.[8]

Ancient Israelite religion was derived from the ancient Canaanite religion of the Bronze Age, and became firmly monotheistic in the Iron Age, around the 6th century BCE.[9] It survives in two modern forms through the ethnic religions of Judaism and Samaritanism. Christianity split from Judaism in the 1st century CE,[2] and spread widely as a universal religion after being adopted by the Roman Empire as a state religion in the 4th century CE. Islam was founded by Muhammad in the 7th century CE, and also widely spread as a universal religion through the early Muslim conquests.[2][10] The Bahá'í Faith was founded in the 19th century CE.

Today, the Abrahamic religions are one of the largest major divisions in comparative religion (along with the Indian religions, the Iranian religions, and the East Asian religions).[11] Christianity, Islam, and Judaism are the Abrahamic religions with the largest number of adherents.[12][13][14] Abrahamic religions with fewer adherents include the Baháʼí Faith,[3] the Druze Faith,[3][15] Samaritanism,[3] and Rastafarianism.[3][16][17]