Achomi language


Achomi (Persian: اچمی), also known as Lari, Larestani,[3] and Khodmooni[4] is a Southwestern Iranian language spoken by Achomi people, a Shia and Sunni Persian ethnic group, in southern Fars and western Hormozgan and by significant numbers of immigrant groups in Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, UAE and other Persian Gulf Arab countries. Achomi is the prodominant language of Larestan, Khonj, Gerash, and Evaz counties in Fars and Bastak County in Hormozgan Province. It is also spoken by some Huwalas in the region. The majority of Achomi speakers are Sunni Muslims.[5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12]

Achomi
Larestani, Lari, Khodmooni
Native toIran, Qatar, Bahrain, UAE, Kuwait, and Oman
RegionFars Province, Hormozgan province, Bushehr province, Kerman province
Native speakers
200,000 (2014)[1]
Persian alphabet (Nastaʿlīq)[2]
Language codes
ISO 639-3lrl
Glottologlari1253
ELPLari

Etymology


There are different ways to refer to this language.

  • Achomi: Native speakers often refer to their language as Achomi.[13] There are different reasons for this name. One of them is the language's frequent usage of the [tf] consonant.[14] The second reason originates from when Arabs began trading with Achomis.[14] This because Arabs called Achomis 'Ajam', which means non-Arab.[14] Therefore, Achomi is a variation of Ajam.[14] Additionally, Achomi can be linked to Achom, which means 'I go' in the language.[13]
  • Khodmooni: In Arab states surrounding the Persian Gulf, Achomis are referred to as Khodmooni'.[4] This translates to "of our own kind".[4]
  • Larestani: UNESCO mentions Larestani as a name for Achomi.[15] This name comes from Larestan, where the language's speakers reside.[4] Etymologically, 'Lar' comes from 'Lad' which means "the origin of everything".[16]
  • Lari: This language is sometimes called Lari.[15][17] To reiterate, 'Lar' originates from 'Lad' which means "the origin of everything".[16]It is also important to note that Lari can be used to refer to a dialect or a language.[13]

History


The Achomi language can be considered a descendant of the Sassanid Persian language or Middle Persian.[18]

Achomi language and its various local dialects such as Lari, Evazi, Khonji, Gerashi, Bastaki, etc., is the branch of the Middle Persian (Pahlavi) language of the Sassanid Empire.[citation needed]

Today, the language is known as an endangered language.[15] In particular, UNESCO refers to it as a "definitely endangered" language with approximately 80,000 speakers.[15] It also does not have official language status in Iran. This is because Iran only recognizes Persian as an official language. However, Iran allows the use of minority languages, such as Achomi, in the media and the education system (alongside Persian).[19] Nevertheless, Achomi remains an endangered language with many dialectal differences gradually disappearing because of the domination of Persian.[15][20]

Many Iranians moved to Arab States in order to pursue better economic opportunities.[21] This included Achomis.[4] These Achomis are often multilingual.[4] Achomi migrants still speak this language in their homes, however, this variety has been influenced by the Arabic language a little but is mutually intelligible with standard Persian.[citation needed]

Classification


The language is a branch of the Pahlavi language.[22] This means that it shares the ergative structure of Pahlavi.[22] It is also an analytical language.[13]This can be linked back to its membership in the southwestern branch of Middle-Iranian languages.[13][22]

With the exception of the regional accent, pronunciation of certain words, and a slight variation in grammar, this old language has been the common language of the Southwestern Pars Province and parts of Hormozgan Province for nearly 1,800 years despite the various conquests of the region since the fall of the Sassanid Empire.[citation needed]

Dialects


Achomi has many dialects.[20][14][22]These dialects correspond to Larestan's different towns.[22] Examples of these dialects include Lari, Evazi, Gerashi, Khonki and Bastaki.[20]These dialectical variations may present themselves through pronunciation.[22][14]There may also be grammatical and word differences between the dialects.[20]Hence, if the speaker is from Evaz, they are referred as speaking Evazi, and if they are from Bastak their dialect is known as Bastaki.[4]

An example of a dialectal variation: in some places people say raftom for "I went" (very similar to the Persian raftam), but in some other places like Lar people say chedem instead (Kurdish: dichim or dechim).

Examples of Achomi (bedeshare accent)

Verbs

To make simple past verbs

The ids (om / ot / osh / mo / tosho) + The simple past root of the first type

Example:

Omgot: I said

oshbu: you (You could be referring to one or more) won

Tokha: You (has to be more than two people) ate

And ...

The root of the past simple second type + ids (am / esh / ruleless / em / eh / et) Example:

Chedam: a to be shortened! I went

Khatesh: Sleep

bodem: we got

And...

Passive

To create a passive verb in past tense we can use the verb root plus its proper prefix. For example, in Achomi, the root for the verb "to tell" is got (gota equals "tell").

omgot (om+got), Kurdish (migot or min got) = I told ...

otgot (om+got), Kurdish (tugot or tegot) = You told...

oshgot (osh+got), Kurdish (wigot) = He told...

mogot (mo+got), Kurdish (megot) = We told...

togot (to+got), Kurdish pl (wegot) = You (pl) told

shogot (sho+got), Kurdish (wa-n got) = They told

Another example: "deda" means "see," and "dee" Kurdish (Deed or dee) is the root verb. So:

omdee = I saw, Kurdish (mideed, midee, min deed, min dee)

otdee= you saw, Kurdish (tu-te dee)....

To create a simple present or continued present tense of a passive verb, here's another example:

agota'em (a+got+aem):I am telling...

agota'esh (a+got+aesh): You are telling...

agotay (a+got+ay): He is telling...

agota'am (a+got+a'am): We are telling...

agotay (a+got+ay): You (pl) are telling...

agota'en (a+got+a'en): They are telling...

For the verb "see" ("deda"):

adead'em, adeda'esh, adeaday,...

References


  1. "larestani". EveryTongue. 22 March 2014. Retrieved March 22, 2014.
  2. "Ethnologue report for language code: lrl". Ethnologue.
  3. "The copy is not equal to the original". Jam-e Jam.
  4. Halkias, Daphne; Adendorff, Christian (2016-04-22). Governance in Immigrant Family Businesses: Enterprise, Ethnicity and Family Dynamics. Routledge. p. 10. ISBN 9781317125952.
  5. "Larestani, Lari in Iran".
  6. "Larestani people of Iran". The Larestani people are predominantly Sunni Muslims.
  7. "Larestani". While most people in Iran are Shi’ite Muslims, the Larestani are Sunnis.
  8. Van Donzel, E. J. (January 1994). Islamic Desk Reference. E. J. Van Donzel. p. 225. ISBN 9004097384.
  9. "Information of the people of Bushehr province".
  10. "Bushehr Governor's Website".
  11. "Bushehr Province Justice Website".[permanent dead link]
  12. "Cyrus The Great International Open Academy".
  13. Moridi, Behzad (2009). "The Dialects of Lar (The State of Research)". Iran & the Caucasus. 13 (2): 335–340. doi:10.1163/157338410X12625876281389. ISSN 1609-8498. JSTOR 25703812.
  14. Rahimi, Ali; Tayebeh Mansoori (2016). "A Study of Personal Pronouns of Achomi Language as an Endangered Iranian Language". doi:10.13140/RG.2.1.1342.0566. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  15. "UNESCO Atlas of the World's Languages in danger". www.unesco.org. Retrieved 2020-12-10.
  16. "ICEHM: International Centre of Economics, Humanities and Management" (PDF). icehm.org. doi:10.15242/icehm.ed0115115. Retrieved 2020-12-10.
  17. "Lari". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2020-12-10.
  18. گويش مردم اوز. نسرين انصاف پور و محمد رفيع ضيايى 1396
  19. "Islamic Parliament of Iran - Constitution". en.parliran.ir. Retrieved 2020-12-10.
  20. Moridi, Behzad (2009). "The Dialects of Lar (The State of Research)". Iran & the Caucasus. 13 (2): 335–340. doi:10.1163/157338410X12625876281389. ISSN 1609-8498. JSTOR 25703812.
  21. Worrall, James; Saleh, Alam (2019). "Persian Pride and Prejudice: Identity Maintenance and Interest Calculations among Iranians in the United Arab Emirates". International Migration Review. 54 (2): 496–526. doi:10.1177/0197918319860154. ISSN 0197-9183. S2CID 203427429.
  22. "ICEHM: International Centre of Economics, Humanities and Management" (PDF). icehm.org. doi:10.15242/icehm.ed0115115. Retrieved 2020-12-10.