Aguascalientes (Spanish pronunciation: [ˌaɣwaskaˈljentes] (listen); lit.'"Hot Springs"'), officially the Free and Sovereign State of Aguascalientes (Spanish: Estado Libre y Soberano de Aguascalientes), is one of the 32 states which comprise the Federal Entities of Mexico. At 22°N and with an average altitude of 1,950 m (6,400 ft) above sea level[9] it is predominantly of semi-arid climate (Bhs and Bhk), and it is located in the northern part of the Bajío region, in north-central Mexico, bordered by Zacatecas to the north, east and west, and by Jalisco to the south.

Free and Sovereign State of Aguascalientes
Estado Libre y Soberano de Aguascalientes (Spanish)
Bona Terra, Bona Gens, Aqua Clara, Clarum Caelum
("Good Earth, Good People, Clear Water, Clear Sky")
Anthem: Himno de Aguascalientes
"Anthem of Aguascalientes"
State of Aguascalientes within Mexico
Coordinates: 22°1′N 102°21′W
Capital (and largest city)Aguascalientes City
AdmissionFebruary 5, 1857[1]
  GovernorMartín Orozco Sandoval (PAN)
  Senators[2]Martha Cecilia Márquez Alvarado
Juan Antonio Martín del Campo
Daniel Gutiérrez Castorena
  Total5,617.80 km2 (2,169.04 sq mi)
 Ranked 29th
Highest elevation3,050 m (10,010 ft)
  Density230/km2 (610/sq mi)
  Density rank4th
Demonym(s)Hidrocálido (a)
Time zoneUTC−6 (CST)
  Summer (DST)UTC−5 (CDT)
Postal code
Area code
ISO 3166 codeMX-AGU
HDI 0.794 high Ranked 8th
GDPUS$ 7,435.49 mil[a]
WebsiteOfficial Web Site
^ a. The state's GDP was 95,174,314 thousand pesos in 2008,[7] amount corresponding to 7,435,493.3 thousand dollars, being a dollar worth 12.80 pesos (value of June 3, 2010).[8]

As of 2019, Aguascalientes has a population of 1.4 million inhabitants,[10] most of whom live in its capital city. Its name means "hot waters" and originated from the abundance of hot springs originally found in the area. The demonym for the state's inhabitants is hidrocálido or aguascalentense.

Aguascalientes is one of the smallest states of Mexico, either by population or land, being the 27th most populated state and the 29th biggest state by area,[9] nonetheless, it is the 4th state by population density,[9] and its economic development in recent years have located it as the 7th state by Human-Development Index[11] and the 8th with highest GDP per capita.[12] It is one of the safest and most prosperous states in Mexico.[13][14]

Aguascalientes was historically known for its former railroad and textile industry, as well as wine making, an industry that remains today. Aguascalientes is currently known for its industrial and economic development. In the 2010s decade, Aguascalientes became the fastest-growing state in the country for the whole decade.[15] Aguascalientes is also well known for its San Marcos Fair (Feria Nacional de San Marcos), which is considered as the largest fair in Mexico and one of the largest in Latin America.[16][17]