Airbus Defence and Space

Airbus Defence and Space is a division of Airbus responsible for defence and aerospace products and services. The division was formed in January 2014 during the corporate restructuring of European Aeronautic Defence and Space (EADS), and comprises the former Airbus Military, Astrium, and Cassidian divisions.[6] It is the world's second largest space company after Boeing and one of the top ten defence companies in the world.[7]

Airbus Defence and Space
TypeOperating Division
Euronext: EAD
Euro Stoxx 50 component
GenreAerospace, Telecommunication and Electronics
PredecessorAirbus Military
FoundedJanuary 2014
Number of locations
35 countries
Area served
Key people
Dirk Hoke, CEO[1]
See more
  • Jean-Marc Nasr, Space Systems
  • Alberto Gutiérrez, Military Aircraft
  • Evert Dudok, Communication, Intelligence and Security
  • Jana Rosenmann, Unmanned Aerial Systems
  • Barbara Bergmeier, Operations
  • Lars Immisch, Human Resources
  • Sabine Klauke, Engineering
  • Peter Weckesser, Digital Transformation Officer
  • Bernhard Brenner, Marketing and Sales
  • Antoine Noguier, Strategy
  • Julian Whitehead, Finance
  • Chantal Jonscher, Corporate Secretary
  • Dirk Erat, Communication
  • Andreas Riecker, Legal and Compliance
ProductsEarth observation, navigation and communication satellites, Interplanetary probes, Military aircraft, Satellite launch vehicles
ServicesCyber security, Military intelligence, One Atlas
Revenue €10.8 billion[2] (FY 2017)
 (FY 2017)
 (FY 2017)
Total assets €111.13 billion[3] (FY 2016)
OwnerAs of September 2016:[4]
Number of employees
SubsidiariesCRISA, Ariane Group, MBDA, Spot Image, Tesat-Spacecom, and Jena-Optronik

Airbus Defence and Space has its corporate headquarters in Ottobrunn, Germany, and is led by Dirk Hoke, the Chief Executive Officer. The company has four programme lines: Military Aircraft (led by Alberto Gutiérrez), Space Systems (led by Jean-Marc Nasr), Communication-Intelligence-Security (led by Evert Dudok) and Unmanned Aerial Systems (led by Jana Rosenmann). With its presence in 35 countries, the company employs 40,000 people from 86 nationalities[8] and contributes to 21% of Airbus revenues.[9] In 2017 Airbus ranked 94th on the Fortune Global 500 list, and was one of the "World's Most Admired Companies".[10]


Formation of EADS and expansion (1997–2008)

As early as 1995 the German aerospace and defence company DaimlerChrysler Aerospace (DASA) and its British counterpart British Aerospace were said to be eager to create a transnational aerospace and defence company.[11] The two companies envisaged including the French company Aérospatiale, the other major European aerospace company, but only after its privatisation.[12] The first stage of this integration was seen as the transformation of Airbus from a consortium of British Aerospace, DASA, Aérospatiale and Construcciones Aeronáuticas SA into an integrated company. However, the merger faltered, and British Aerospace abandoned the DASA merger in favour of purchasing its British rival, Marconi Electronic Systems, the electronics division of General Electric Company. The merger of British Aerospace and MES to form BAE Systems was announced on 19 January 1999 and completed on 30 November.[13][14]

DASA and the Spanish aircraft company CASA agreed to merge on 11 June 1999.[15] On 14 October 1999 DASA agreed to merge with Aérospatiale-Matra to create the European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company.[16] 10 July 2000 was "Day One" for the new company which became the world's second-largest aerospace company after Boeing and the second-largest European arms manufacturer after BAE Systems.[17] In January 2001 Airbus Industrie was transformed from an inherently inefficient consortium structure to a formal joint stock company, with legal and tax procedures being finalised on 11 July.[18][19]

On 16 June 2003 EADS acquired BAE's 25% share in Astrium, the satellite and space system manufacturer, to become the sole owner. EADS paid £84 million, however due to the lossmaking status of the company BAE invested an equal amount for "restructuring".[20] It was subsequently renamed EADS Astrium, and had the divisions Astrium Satellites, Astrium Space Transportation and Astrium Services.

On 1 July 2003 EADS Defence & Security Systems was founded with the merger of the activities of missile systems (LFK), defence electronics, military aircraft and telecommunications of the EADS Group. Tom Enders became the first CEO of the new division.

Airbus Military

The predecessor company was established in January 1999 as the Airbus Military Company SAS to manage the Airbus A400M project, taking over from the Euroflag consortium. In May 2003, the company was restructured as Airbus Military Sociedad Limitada (AMSL) prior to the execution of the production contract. The Military Transport Aircraft Division (MTAD) was a division of EADS which designs, manufactures and commercialises EADS-CASA light and medium transport aircraft, and headquartered in Madrid, Spain.[21] In 1999 was Construcciones Aeronáuticas SA (CASA) in the EADS Group (European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company) incorporated. In Spain it was still referred to as EADS-CASA. The EADS-CASA division Military Transport Aircraft Division (MTA division) was also responsible for the development, production and sales of the leichten- and medium Transport and utility aircraft within the EADS Group. On 16 December 2008, EADS announced that the Military Transport Aircraft Division (MTA division) and Airbus Military SL (AMSL) as a new business unit in the Airbus SAS integrated. Airbus Military was formally created in April 2009 by the integration of the former Military Transport Aircraft Division (MTAD) and Airbus Military Sociedad Limitada (AMSL) into Airbus. The division manufactured tanker, transport and mission aircraft including Airbus A330 MRTT, Airbus A400M, CASA C-212 Aviocar, CASA/IPTN CN-235 and EADS CASA C-295. After the merger, it also acquired the production of Eurofighter Typhoon, which was earlier under Cassidian. Eurocopter, which was earlier under Airbus Military, was reorganized as Airbus Helicopters.


Astrium was formed in 2000 by the merger of Matra Marconi Space (itself formed from French and British companies) with the space division of DaimlerChrysler Aerospace AG and Computadores Redes e Ingeniería SA. Henceforth Astrium was a joint venture between EADS and BAE Systems. On 16 June 2003 the minority shareholder, BAE Systems, sold its 25% share to EADS, making EADS the sole shareholder. Astrium became EADS Astrium Satellites and in a wider restructuring became the major constituent of EADS Astrium, which also included EADS Astrium Space Transportation and EADS Astrium Services. In this restructuring the former Astrium Space Infrastructure division merged with EADS Launchers & Vehicles division to form EADS SPACE Transportation, which became later EADS Astrium Space Transportation. Also, Paradigm Secure Communications, initially created by Astrium in the frame of the Skynet 5 contract for the UK Ministry of Defence became the major constituent of EADS SPACE Services. CASA Espacio became part of EADS Astrium on 1 January 2004. EADS Astrium was the sole shareholder of Infoterra Ltd. On 1 July 2006, the French subsidiary of EADS Astrium, EADS Astrium SAS, merged with other French subsidiaries of EADS Space (especially EADS Space Transportation).


EADS Defence & Security Systems was founded on 1 July 2003. In it, the activities of missile systems (LFK-Lenkflugkörpersysteme GmbH), defence electronics, military aircraft and telecommunications of the EADS Group were merged. On 17 September 2010 the company name was changed to Cassidian, an amalgamation of the Latin words Cassida (helmet) and meridian, and focused on worldwide protection and security. Cassidian was further subdivided into Missiles (missile systems), Defence Electronics (defence electronics, such as sensors, electronics and mission avionics), Cassidian Air Systems (production and maintenance of military aircraft) Defence & Communication Systems (Defence and Communications Systems) and Services (military service). In 2012 a new division was incorporated as Cassidian CyberSecurity GmbH, headquartered in Ottobrunn.

Post merger (2013–present)

Airbus Defence and Space was formed in 2013 as a result of the merger of Astrium, Cassidian, and the Airbus Military divisions of European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company (EADS) which was itself reorganized as Airbus.[22] On 1 January 2014, the parent company EADS was restructured as Airbus, comprising three subsidiary companies that include Airbus Defence and Space, Airbus, and Airbus Helicopters.[23]

On 16 September 2014, after a detailed and comprehensive portfolio assessment, Airbus Defence and Space defined Space (Launchers & Satellites), Military Aircraft, Missiles and related Systems and Services as its future core businesses. Some business areas were identified as divestment candidates as they did not fit the strategic goals for the company. Under this plan, the commercial and para-public communication business (including Professional Mobile Radio and commercial satellite communications services activities) was divested. Subsidiaries and J.V. including Fairchild Communications, Rostock System-Technik, AVdef, ESG and Atlas Electronik were divested.[24] On 18 March 2016 the company decided to sell its defence electronics business (Defence Electronics) based in Ulm to Kohlberg Kravis Roberts, a global investment firm with a wide-ranging portfolio including Hospital Corporation of America, NXP Semiconductors, TDC A/S, and Dollar General.[25] From January 1, 2017. the group reorganized under the brand name of "Airbus". The subsidiaries Airbus, Airbus Helicopters and Airbus Defence and Space became operating divisions of the same company.[26]

Structural evolution of Airbus SE
18 December 1970 1 January 1992 10 July 2000 18 September 2000 January 2001 1 December 2006 1 April 2009 17 September 2010 17 January 2014 27 May 2015 1 January 2017 12 April 2017
    European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company NV Airbus Group NV Airbus Group SE Airbus SE   
Airbus Industrie GIE Airbus SAS  
  Airbus Military SAS Airbus Defence and Space SAS   
    EADS Defence and Security Cassidian SAS
    Astrium SAS EADS Astrium SAS
  Eurocopter SA Eurocopter SAS Airbus Helicopters SAS   


Airbus Defence and Space is structured into four business lines:

  • Military Aircraft (headed by Alberto Gutiérrez) is responsible for fighter aircraft, airlifters, aerial refuelling tankers, and airborne warfare systems.
    • Global strike
    • Mobility
    • Surveillance and engagement
    • Missiles and unmanned airborne systems
  • Space Systems (headed by Jean-Marc Nasr) is responsible for Space exploration, missile defence, satellites, other networking services and also the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (Orion MPCV) and Space Station programmes.
    • Information solutions[clarification needed]
    • Strategic missile and defence systems
    • Network and tactical systems
    • Space and intelligence systems
    • Space exploration
  • Communications, Intelligence and Security (headed by Evert Dudok) is responsible for providing intelligence to various governmental agencies.
    • Secure communications solutions for the military, government and institutional players and users
    • Airbus Cyber Security
    • Airbus DS Communications – a North American public safety company
  • UAS - Unmanned Aerial Systems (headed by Jana Rosenmann)


Tankers and transport aircraft

Airbus A330 MRTT

The Airbus A330 Multi Role Tanker Transport (MRTT) is an aerial refuelling tanker aircraft based on the civilian Airbus A330. The A330 MRTT has been ordered by the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF), Royal Air Force (RAF), United Arab Emirates Air Force, Royal Saudi Air Force and Republic of Singapore Air Force. The EADS/Northrop Grumman KC-45 was a version of the A330 MRTT proposed for the United States Air Force.

Airbus A400M Atlas

The Airbus A400M Atlas[27][28] is a multi-national, four-engine turboprop military transport aircraft. It was designed by Airbus Military (now Airbus Defence and Space) as a tactical airlifter with strategic capabilities to replace older transport aircraft, such as the Transall C-160 and the Lockheed C-130 Hercules.[29] The A400M is positioned, in terms of size, between the C-130 and the C-17; it can carry heavier loads than the C-130, while able to use rough landing strips. Along with the transport role, the A400M can perform aerial refuelling and medical evacuation when fitted with appropriate equipment.

The CASA C-212 Aviocar is a turboprop-powered STOL medium transport aircraft designed and built by CASA in Spain for civil and military use. C-212s are also produced under licence in Indonesia by Indonesian Aerospace (IAe), formerly called IPTN. The design was initially marketed under the name of Aviocar, but EADS-CASA no longer uses that name in referring to the C-212.


The CASA/IPTN CN-235 is a medium-range twin-engine transport aircraft that was jointly developed by Construcciones Aeronáuticas SA (CASA) of Spain and Indonesian manufacturer IPTN, as a regional airliner and military transport. Its primary military roles include maritime patrol, surveillance, and air transport. Its largest user is Turkey which has 59 aircraft.


The EADS CASA C-295 is a twin-turboprop tactical military transport aircraft, and is currently manufactured by Airbus Defence and Space in Spain.

Fighter and attack aircraft

Eurofighter Typhoon

The Eurofighter Typhoon is a twin-engine, canard-delta wing, multirole fighter.[30][31] The Typhoon was designed and is manufactured by a consortium of Alenia Aermacchi, Airbus and BAE Systems that conducts the majority of the project through a joint holding company, Eurofighter Jagdflugzeug GmbH formed in 1986. NATO Eurofighter and Tornado Management Agency manages the project and is the prime customer.[32]

Unmanned aerial vehicles

  • Tracker is a short-range mini UAS/UAV with two low noise electric engines. and can be operated by a two-man team. This fully automatic unmanned aircraft can be deployed in all weather conditions, flat terrain, mountainous areas or urban environments.
  • Barracuda is a multi-sensor system, designed as a demonstrator for test missions such as fast reconnaissance, surveillance, targeting and battle damage assessment, and is used as a testbed for the technologies and procedures for future aerial systems.
  • European HALE RPAS is a long-endurance aerial drone system designed for surveillance, reconnaissance and target acquisition. The main purpose of the European UAS is to provide wide-area ground and maritime surveillance along with reconnaissance of specific areas to assist commanders in the theatre of operations.
  • Euro Hawk was based on the Northrop Grumman RQ-4B Block 20/30/40 and was to be equipped with an Airbus Defence and Space-built SIGINT package; it was intended to fulfill Germany's requirement to replace their aging Dassault-Breguet Atlantique electronic surveillance aircraft of the Marineflieger (German Naval Air Arm). The EADS sensor package is composed of six wing-mounted pods;[35] reportedly these sensor pods could potentially be used on other platforms, including manned aircraft.
Euro Hawk
  • DVF 2000 VT is a short-range mini UAS/UAV with a low noise electric motor. It is an unmanned aircraft especially suited for maritime and land surveillance.
  • KZO is a tactical UAS with a powerful two-stroke gasoline engine. It is an unmanned aircraft especially suited for high-speed reconnaissance missions. The gathered information is immediately available and can quickly be distributed in the command structure.
  • Harfang is a medium-altitude long-endurance UAS for joint armed forces. It can fulfill a wide range of missions, from surveillance to sensitive peacekeeping. Harfang provides real-time information at each level of the operational chain and can be controlled either manually from the ground control station or autonomously.
  • ATLANTE is a tactical unmanned aerial system that ensures intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance missions by day and night for ground forces deployed in theatre.

Experimental aircraft

  • Zephyr is a series of lightweight solar-powered UAV originally designed and built in 2003 by the British company QinetiQ.[36] The development of the aircraft is ongoing and currently part of the Airbus High Altitude Pseudo-Satellite (HAPS) programme.[37]

Ballistic Missiles

In May 2016, Airbus and Safran agreed that their joint venture would work on upgrading the M51 submarine-launched ballistic missile to the M51.3 standard for the French Navy.[38]

Space Systems


Ariane 4
Ariane 5
  • Ariane is a series of a European civilian expendable launch vehicles for space launch operated from 1973 onwards. It is a collaboration between France, Germany and the UK. The Ariane project was code-named L3S (the French abbreviation for third-generation substitution launcher). The European Space Agency (ESA) charged the EADS subsidiary Astrium, presently Airbus Defence and Space, with the development of all Ariane launchers and of the testing facilities, while Arianespace, a 32.5% CNES commercial subsidiary created in 1980, handles production, operations and marketing. Arianespace launches Ariane rockets from the Guiana Space Centre at Kourou in French Guiana. Ariane 5 completed its 74th consecutive successful mission in October 2016.[39] The newest iteration Ariane 6 is under development with a first test flight scheduled for 2020.[40]

International Space Station

Columbus ISS Module

Space transportation

  • The Orion service module is the service module component of the Orion spacecraft, serving as its primary power and propulsion component until it is discarded at the end of each mission. In January 2013, NASA announced that the European Space Agency (ESA) will construct the service module for Artemis 1, replacing the previous design. Based on ESA's Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV), the new design is also known as the European service module (ESM). The service module supports the crew module from launch through separation prior to reentry. It provides in-space propulsion capability for orbital transfer, attitude control, and high altitude ascent aborts. It provides the water and oxygen needed for a habitable environment, generates and stores electrical power, and maintains the temperature of the vehicle's systems and components. This module can also transport unpressurized cargo and scientific payloads.
Orion service module

Astronomy and cosmology missions

Gaia (spacecraft)

Solar observation missions

  • Solar Orbiter (SolO) is a Sun-observing satellite, developed by the European Space Agency (ESA). The mission was launched with an Atlas V from the Cape Canaveral AFS in Florida at 5:03 Central European Time (CET) on 10 February 2020.[46] SolO is intended to perform detailed measurements of the inner heliosphere and nascent solar wind, and perform close observations of the polar regions of the Sun, which is difficult to do from Earth, both serving to answer the question 'How does the Sun create and control the heliosphere?' The Solar Orbiter will make observations of the Sun from an eccentric orbit moving as close as ~60 solar radii (RS), or 0.284 astronomical units (AU), placing it inside Mercury's perihelion of 0.3075 AU and providing it with the closest ever views of the Sun.[47]

Planetary science missions

Venus Express
  • Venus Express was the first Venus exploration mission of the European Space Agency (ESA). Launched in November 2005, it arrived at Venus in April 2006 and began continuously sending back science data from its polar orbit around Venus. Equipped with seven scientific instruments, the main objective of the mission was the long term observation of the Venusian atmosphere. The observation over such long periods of time had never been done in previous missions to Venus and was key to a better understanding of the atmospheric dynamics.
  • Mars Express is a space exploration mission being conducted by the European Space Agency (ESA). The Mars Express mission is exploring the planet Mars and is the first planetary mission attempted by the agency.

Earth observation satellites

Airbus Defence and Space is the world's largest supplier of Earth observation systems with more than fifty satellites launched and 18 more under construction.[61][62]

  • TerraSAR-X NG: A next-generation development based on the TerraSAR-X mission.
  • AstroBus-L: A platform suited for high-performance Earth observation satellites such as the Pleiades Twin satellites and the SPOT satellite system.
  • Xpress: Low-cost synthetic aperture radar (SAR) satellite system particularly suitable for surveillance applications in a constellation concept.
  • AstroBus-S: Earth observation satellites for very-high-resolution (VHR) applications.
  • AstroBus-XS: Modernized and enhanced version of the very successful Myriade-based satellite family.

Some of the major satellite systems built are: Envisat (the world's largest civilian Earth observation satellite.[63]), Earth Explorers such as GOCE, GRACE, Swarm, EarthCARE, Sentinel Missions, MetOp and MetOp-SG.

Telecommunication satellites

Airbus Defence and Space has manufactured over a hundred communications satellites for a vast range of applications for clients from all over the world.[64]

  • Eurostar: Used for a series of spacecraft providing telecommunications services in geosynchronous orbit (GEO). More than 70 Eurostar satellites have been ordered to date, of which more than 55 have been successfully launched since October 1990 and have proven highly reliable in operational service. In December 2013, the Eurostar satellites accumulated 500 years of successful operations in orbit.[65] The Eurostar spacecraft series is designed for a variety of telecommunications needs including fixed services and broadcast, mobile services, broadband and secured communications.

Some of the major telecommunication satellites built are: Alphabus, the Eutelsat series, the Astra series, the Hispasat series, the Inmarsat series, and the UK military Skynet series.

Airbus Defence and Space Spaceplane prototype


Airbus Defence and Space Spaceplane is a suborbital spaceplane concept for carrying space tourists, proposed by Airbus Defence and Space. A full-size mockup was officially unveiled in Paris, France, on 13 June 2007,[66] and is now on display in the Concorde hall of the Musée de l'Air et de l'Espace.[citation needed] The project is the first space tourism entry by a major aerospace contractor.

Rocket engines

Airbus Defence and Space also produces commercial versions of its proprietary rocket engines such as HM7B, Aestus, Vinci, Vulcain[67]

One Atlas

Airbus Defence and Space launched One Atlas in October 2016, a new satellite image basemap which covers the earth landmasses with professional-grade imagery.[68][69] The images available via Google Drive can be accessed around the clock, and are refreshed within a 12-month period. One Atlas was developed to bring demonstrable value to clients planning defence or security missions and operations, for example assisting the mapping, reporting and updating of positions, movements or risk areas, but also providing valuable intelligence when selecting transportation routes and access points.


Major European Airbus Defence and Space sites are located

See also


  1. "Executive Committee". Airbus Defence & Space. February 2015. Retrieved 9 February 2015.
  2. Airbus Group SE Financial Statements 2017 (PDF). Airbus. Retrieved 18 February 2018.
  3. Airbus Group SE Financial Statements 2016 (PDF). Airbus. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 July 2017. Retrieved 28 February 2017.
  4. "Airbus Group - Share information".
  5. Overview, Airbus DS. "About Airbus Defence and Space". Airbus Defence and Space. Retrieved 17 March 2016.
  6. Parker, Andrew (2 January 2014). "EADS changes name to Airbus". Retrieved 25 February 2014.
  7. "Airbus Defence and Space-built PeruSAT-1 delivers first images". Space Daily. 12 October 2016.
  8. "Airbus Defence and Space Global presence". ADS. Retrieved 20 July 2014.
  9. "Investors & Shareholders". Retrieved 25 August 2016.
  10. "World's Largest Companies". Fortune Magazine. Retrieved 10 September 2017.
  11. Jones, Adam (20 January 1999). "Europe cries foul as New BAe emerges". The Times.
  12. Sparaco, Pierre; Morrocco, John D. (30 June 1997). "French Government Grapples With Aerospace Strategy". Aviation Week and Space Technology. The McGraw-Hill Companies.
  13. BAE Systems Annual Report 1999 22. BAE Systems plc (2000). Retrieved on 2006-10-27.
  14. Turpin, Andrew (4 March 2000). "BAE eyes US targets after profit rockets". The Scotsman. p. 26.
  15. White, David; Nicoll, Alexander (12 June 1999). "DaimlerChrysler wins fight for Spain's Casa: Deal boosts aerospace industry consolidation in Europe". Financial Times.
  16. Nicoll, Alexander; Skapiner, Michael (15 October 1999). "Flying in formation: The merger of DaimlerChrysler Aerospace and Aérospatiale-Matra may pave the way for a larger European grouping or the first transatlantic defence tie-up, argue Alexander Nicoll and Michael Skapinker". Financial Times.
  17. "History of EADS". EADS. Archived from the original on 3 June 2008. Retrieved 7 October 2009.
  18. "EADS and BAE SYSTEMS complete Airbus integration – Airbus SAS formally established" (Press release). BAE Systems plc. 12 July 2001. Archived from the original on 20 October 2007. Retrieved 4 October 2007.
  19. Sparaco, Pierre (19 March 2001). "Climate conducive for Airbus consolidation". Aviation Week & Space Technology.
  20. Odell, Mark (1 February 2003). "BAE agrees new deal for Astrium". Financial Times. p. 15.
  21. Being Part of aMuch Bigger World Archived 2014-01-09 at the Wayback Machine
  22. "EADS Announces Name Change, Restructuring | Defense News". 31 July 2013. Archived from the original on 31 July 2013. Retrieved 25 February 2014.
  23. "What we do". Airbus. 2015. Archived from the original on 6 February 2015. Retrieved 9 February 2015.
  24. DS, Airbus. "Airbus Defence and Space continues transformation with portfolio optimisation". Airbus Defence and Space. Retrieved 23 October 2016.
  25. DS, Airbus. "Airbus Group To Sell Defence Electronics To KKR for € 1.1bn". Airbus Defence and Space. Retrieved 23 October 2016.
  26. "Airbus Plans Internal Merger in Latest Corporate Shake-Up". Fortune. Reuters. 30 September 2016. Retrieved 21 January 2017.
  27. "A400M naming ceremony at RIAT." Archived 2013-12-17 at the Wayback Machine Airbus Military, 6 July 2012. Retrieved: 6 July 2012.
  28. Hoyle, Craig. "RIAT: A400M reborn as 'Atlas'." Flightglobal 6 July 2012. Retrieved: 6 July 2012.
  29. "RAF – A400m." Archived 2009-04-30 at the Wayback Machine RAF, MOD. Retrieved: 15 May 2010.
  30. "Benefits to Industry". Retrieved 31 January 2012.
  31. "Overview". Retrieved 31 January 2012.
  32. "Eurofighter and NETMA Strike Logistics Deal". Jane's International Defence Review. Retrieved 3 July 2011.
  33. "Airbus Looks to Create New Jet Trainer for Spanish Air Force". Aviation Today. Retrieved 9 November 2020.
  34. "Airbus pitches new trainer jet for Spain, but with eyes for Europe". DefenseNews. Retrieved 9 November 2020.
  35. "RQ-4 Euro Hawk UAV Readying for Takeoff". Defense Industry Daily. 15 May 2013.
  36. Amos, Jonathan (24 June 2003). "Strato-plane looks forward". BBC News. Retrieved 31 March 2014. British engineers are preparing to push the limits of aeroplane technology
  37. "First flight of Astrium's Zephyr solar HAPS". Airbus. Archived from the original on 5 October 2013. Retrieved 31 March 2014.
  38. Pierre Tran (10 May 2016). "Airbus and Safran Agree to Space Launcher Joint Venture". Retrieved 9 July 2017.
  39. "Intelsat Pair lifted into Orbit in Record-Setting Ariane 5 Launch". Spaceflight 101. 24 August 2016. Retrieved 25 August 2016.
  40. "Ariane 6". ESA. 15 June 2015. Retrieved 20 July 2015.
  41. "Automated Transfer Vehicle, ESA document EUC-ESA-FSH-003 Rev 1.2 (specification)" (PDF). ESA. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 March 2007. Retrieved 26 March 2007.
  42. "Call for Media: LISA Pathfinder launch". ESA. 23 November 2015.
  43. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 19 April 2016. Retrieved 29 October 2016.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  44. "ESA Gaia home". ESA. Retrieved 23 October 2013.
  45. Spie (2014). "Timo Prusti plenary: Gaia: Scientific In-orbit Performance". SPIE Newsroom. doi:10.1117/2.3201407.13.
  46. "Liftoff for Solar Orbiter, ESA's mission to face the Sun up close". European Space Agency. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
  47. KIS – Solar Orbiter
  48. Vago, Jorge; Witasse, Olivier; Baglioni, Pietro; Haldemann, Albert; Gianfiglio, Giacinto; et al. (August 2013). "ExoMars: ESA's Next Step in Mars Exploration" (PDF). Bulletin. European Space Agency (155): 12–23.
  49. Katz, Gregory (27 March 2014). "2018 mission: Mars rover prototype unveiled in UK". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 7 April 2014. Retrieved 29 March 2014.
  50. "Russia and Europe Team Up for Mars Missions". 14 March 2013. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
  51. de Selding, Peter B. (26 September 2012). "U.S., Europe Won't Go It Alone in Mars Exploration". Space News. Retrieved 5 January 2014.[dead link]
  52. "Second EXOMARS Mission moves to next launch opportunity in 2020". ESA.
  53. Amos, Jonathan (18 January 2008). "European probe aims for Mercury" (web). The European Space Agency (Esa) has signed an industrial contract to build a probe to send to the planet Mercury. BBC News. Retrieved 21 January 2008.
  54. "ESA PR 28-2018: BepiColombo blasts off to investigate Mercury's mysteries". ESA. 20 October 2018. Retrieved 13 December 2018.
  55. "ESA—Selection of the L1 mission" (PDF). 17 April 2012.
  56. "Esa selects 1bn-euro Juice probe to Jupiter". Jonathan Amos. BBC News Online. 2 May 2012. Retrieved 2 May 2012.
  57. Agle, D. C.; Brown, Dwayne; Bauer, Markus (30 June 2014). "Rosetta's Comet Target 'Releases' Plentiful Water". NASA. Retrieved 30 June 2014.
  58. Chang, Kenneth (5 August 2014). "Rosetta Spacecraft Set for Unprecedented Close Study of a Comet". The New York Times. Retrieved 5 August 2014.
  59. Bibring, Jean-Pierre; Schwehm, Gerhard (25 February 2007). "Stunning view of Rosetta skimming past Mars". European Space Agency. Retrieved 21 January 2014.
  60. Auster, H. U.; Richter, I.; Glassmeier, K. H.; Berghofer, G.; Carr, C. M.; Motschmann, U. (July 2010). "Magnetic field investigations during Rosetta's 2867 Šteins flyby". Planetary and Space Science. 58 (9): 1124–1128. Bibcode:2010P&SS...58.1124A. doi:10.1016/j.pss.2010.01.006.
  61. "Earth Observation Satellites". Airbus Defence and Space. Archived from the original on 30 October 2016. Retrieved 29 October 2016.
  62. "Earth Observation Satellites". Airbus Defence and Space. Archived from the original on 30 October 2016. Retrieved 29 October 2016.
  63. EarthNet Online
  64. "Telecommunications". Airbus Defence and Space. Retrieved 29 October 2016.
  65. Astrium celebrates 500 years of successful Eurostar satellite operation in orbit, UKspace, 27.12.2013
  66. "Elon Musk's First Astronaut Launch". Forbes. 25 May 2020. Retrieved 14 June 2007.
  67. "Rocket Launcher Propulsion – Ottobrunn, Germany". Retrieved 20 July 2014.
  68. Patil, Vishwanath. "Airbus Launches Satellite Image Library for Defence, Intelligence and Security Applications". Defense World. Retrieved 29 October 2016.
  69. Cell, Technology. "Airbus Defence and Space Launches "One Atlas" Satellite Image Library for Agricultural Applications". Africa Agri Business. Retrieved 29 October 2016.