Algeria

Algeria,[lower-alpha 3] officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a country in North Africa. Algeria is bordered to the northeast by Tunisia; to the east by Libya; to the southeast by Niger; to the southwest by Mali, Mauritania, and Western Sahara; to the west by Morocco; and to the north by the Mediterranean Sea. It is considered to be a part of the Maghreb region of North Africa. It has a semi-arid geography, with most of the population living in the fertile north and the Sahara dominating the geography of the south. Algeria covers an area of 2,381,741 square kilometres (919,595 sq mi), making it the world's tenth largest nation by area, and the largest nation in Africa, being more than 200 times as large as the smallest country in the continent, The Gambia.[9] With a population of 44 million, Algeria is the ninth-most populous country in Africa, and the 32nd-most populous country in the world. The capital and largest city is Algiers, located in the far north on the Mediterranean coast.

People's Democratic Republic of Algeria
  • الجمهورية الجزائرية الديمقراطية الشعبية (Arabic)
    al-Jumhūriyya al-Jazāʾiriyya ad-Dīmuqrāṭiyya ašŠaʿbiyya
  • République algérienne démocratique et populaire (French)
Motto: بالشعب وللشعب
("By the people and for the people")[1][2]
Anthem: Kassaman
(English: "We Pledge")
Location of Algeria (dark green)
Capital
and largest city
Algiers
36°42′N 3°13′E
Official languages
Other languagesAlgerian Arabic (Darja)
(lingua franca)
French[3][lower-alpha 1]
(lingua franca)
Ethnic groups
Religion
Demonym(s)Algerian
GovernmentUnitary semi-presidential republic
 President
Abdelmadjid Tebboune
Aymen Benabderrahmane
Salah Goudjil
Ibrahim Boughali
LegislatureParliament
Council of the Nation
People's National Assembly
Formation
202 BC
42
430
477
757
776
786
972
1014
1235
1516
1832
5 July 1830
5 July 1962
Area
 Total
2,381,741 km2 (919,595 sq mi) (10th)
 Water (%)
1.1
Population
 2021 estimate
44,700,000[4] (32nd)
 Density
17.7/km2 (45.8/sq mi) (168th)
GDP (PPP)2022 estimate
 Total
$581.189 billion[5] (43rd)
 Per capita
$13,002[5] (111th)
GDP (nominal)2022 estimate
 Total
$191.941 billion[5] (58th)
 Per capita
$4,294[5] (130th)
Gini (2011)27.6[6][7]
low
HDI (2021) 0.745[8]
high · 91st
CurrencyAlgerian dinar (DZD)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy
Driving sideright
Calling code+213
ISO 3166 codeDZ
Internet TLD.dz
الجزائر.

Algeria produced and is linked to many civilizations, empires and dynasties, including ancient Numidians, Phoenicians, Carthaginians, Romans, Vandals, Byzantines, Umayyads, Abbasids, Rustamids, Idrisids, Aghlabids, Fatimids, Zirids, Hammadids, Almoravids, Almohads, Zayyanids, Spaniards, Ottomans and the French colonial empire. The vast majority of Algeria's population is Arab-Berber, practicing Islam, and using the official languages of Arabic and Berber. However, French serves as an administrative and educational language in some contexts. The main spoken language is Algerian Arabic.

Algeria is a semi-presidential republic, with local constituencies consisting of 58 provinces and 1,541 communes. Algeria is a regional power in North Africa, and a middle power in global affairs. It has the highest Human Development Index of all non-island African countries and one of the largest economies on the continent, based largely on energy exports. Algeria has the world's sixteenth-largest oil reserves and the ninth-largest reserves of natural gas. Sonatrach, the national oil company, is the largest company in Africa, supplying large amounts of natural gas to Europe. Algeria's military is one of the largest in Africa, and has the largest defence budget on the continent. It is a member of the African Union, the Arab League, the OIC, OPEC, the United Nations, and the Arab Maghreb Union, of which it is a founding member.


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