Amal dynasty


The Amali – also called Amals, Amalings or Amalungs – were a leading dynasty of the Goths, a Germanic people who confronted the Roman Empire during the decline of the Western Roman Empire.[1] They eventually became the royal house of the Ostrogoths and founded the Ostrogothic Kingdom of Italy.[2]

Origin


The Amal clan was claimed to have descended from the divine.[3] Jordanes writes:

Now the first of these heroes, as they themselves relate in their legends, was Gapt, who begat Hulmul. And Hulmul begat Augis; and Augis begat him who was called Amal, from whom the name of the Amali comes. Athal begat Achiulf and Oduulf. Now Achiulf begat Ansila and Ediulf, Vultuulf and Ermanaric.[4]

This provides the following stemma for the earliest rulers of the Goths, before outlining in more detail the two divisions that arose from the son, Achiulf of Athal, the last in this early lineage :

Early rulers/kings
Gapt
Hulmul
Augis
Amal
Hisarnis
Ostrogotha
Hunuil
Athal[5]

Gapt or Gaut is the Scandinavian god of war. Hulmul or Humli-Hulmul, is considered the divine father of the Danish people.[3] Ermanaric (also referred to as Ermanaricus or Hermanaric), is identified as a Greuthungian king who ruled territories in modern Ukraine. Ermanaric signals the tenth generation, and the first generation to be backed by historical record.[3]

History


The Amali remained a prominent family as the Greuthungi evolved into the Ostrogoths, became vassals of the Huns and moved west. In 453, the Ostrogoths regained their independence under the Amali, Theodemir. According to Jordanes, "Vultuulf begat Valaravans and Valaravans begat Vinitharius. Vinitharius moreover begat Vandalarius; Vandalarius begat Theodemir and Valamir and Vidimer."[4] Theodemir's son, Theoderic the Great, founded the Ostrogothic Kingdom.[citation needed]

A separate branch of the family were members of the Visigoths. Sigeric, a brief usurper to the Visigothic throne in 415, may have been a member of the Amali. Another Visigoth, Eutharic, reunited the branches of the family by marrying Theoderic's daughter Amalasuntha. Jordanes states "Hermanaric, the son of Achiulf, begat Hunimund, and Hunimund begat Thorismud. Now Thorismud begat Beremud, Beremud begat Veteric, and Veteric likewise begat Eutharic."

The last attested member of the Amali house was Theodegisclus, son of Theodahad.

In Literature


In the Nibelungenlied and some other medieval German epic poems, the followers of Dietrich von Bern are referred to as 'Amelungen'. In other cases, Amelung is reinterpreted as the name of one of Dietrich's ancestors. The Kaiserchronik also refers to Dietrich/Theoderic's family as the 'Amelungen', and in a letter of bishop Meinhard von Bamberg, as well as the Annals of Quedlinburg, 'Amulungum'/'Amelung' ("the Amelung") is used to refer to Dietrich himself. This shows that the family's legacy was remembered in oral tradition far into the Middle Ages, long after any stories about Amal himself had ceased to circulate.

Cassiodorus' Origo Gothica describes the Goths moving to the Black Sea, where they split into two factions, the Amali, who would later become the Ostrogoths, and the Balthi, who become the Visigoths. Both the Amali and the Balthi are recalled as families of "kings and heroes."[3] However, even before Cassiodorus' time, the tradition of the Amal appeared to be still popular. This is shown in the naming of the royals, like Theodoric's daughters, Ostrogotho and Amalasuintha, and his sister, Amalafrida, who were all given Amal names.[3]

Legacy


At least two families claimed descent from Amali. The first family was Billungs, Dukes of Saxony. They were also known as Amelungs or von Ömlingen. Another family was Solovjovs, Barons of the Russian Empire from 1727 (in German speaking sources known as von Solowhoff or Solowhoff von Greutungen). Solovjovs claimed Ermanaric was their ancestor.

In popular culture


  • The Amali appear as the "Amaling" dynasty in the grand strategy game Crusader Kings 2.

See also


Amali Rulers


Genealogy


Ermanaric
king of Goths
HOUSE OF AMALSigeric
king of Visigoths
ThiudimirTheodemir
king of Ostrogoths
Ereleuva
(daughter)
Valamir
king of Ostrogoths
Amalafrida
∞ 1.(unknown)
2.Thrasamund
king of Vandals
Theoderic the Great
king of Ostrogoths, Visigoths
AudofledaClovis I
king of Franks
Merovingian dynasty
Amalaberga
Hermanafrid
king of Thuringii
(1?) Theodahad
king of Ostrogoths
∞ Gudeliva
Amalasuintha
∞ 1.Traguilla
2.Eutharic
consul
Ostrogotho
Sigismund
king of Burgundians
Anicius?Justin I
Roman Emperor
Vigilantia
(2) Athalaric
king of Ostrogoths
(2) Mataswintha
∞ 1.Vitiges
king of Ostrogoths
2.Germanus
general
Justinian I
Roman Emperor
Justinian dynasty

See also


References


  1. "FamilyTreeDNA - Genetic Testing for Ancestry, Family History & Genealogy". www.familytreedna.com. Retrieved 2019-10-24.
  2. Wolfram, Herwig (1990-02-13). History of the Goths. University of California Press. ISBN 9780520069831.
  3. Wolfram, Herwig (1988). History of the Goths. Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 32.
  4. Christensen, Arne Søby (2002-01-01). Cassiodorus, Jordanes and the History of the Goths: Studies in a Migration Myth. Museum Tusculanum Press. ISBN 9788772897103.
  5. Peter Heather, 'Cassiodorus and the Rise of the Amals: Genealogy and the Goths under Hun Domination,' The Journal of Roman Studies, Vol. 79 (1989), pp. 103-128 p.104

Sources