Amazon River

The Amazon River (UK: /ˈæməzən/, US: /ˈæməzɒn/; Spanish: Río Amazonas, Portuguese: Rio Amazonas) in South America is the largest river by discharge volume of water in the world, and the disputed longest river in the world.[2][6][n 2]

Amazon River
Rio Amazonas, Río Amazonas
Amazon River
Amazon River and its drainage basin
Native nameAmazonas
CountryPeru, Colombia, Brazil
CityIquitos (Peru); Leticia (Colombia);
Tabatinga (Brazil); Tefé (Brazil);
Itacoatiara (Brazil) Parintins (Brazil);
Óbidos (Brazil); Santarém (Brazil);
Almeirim (Brazil); Macapá (Brazil);
Manaus (Brazil)
Physical characteristics
SourceRío Apurimac, Mismi Peak
  locationArequipa Region, Peru
  coordinates15°31′04″S 71°41′37″W
  elevation5,220 m (17,130 ft)
MouthAtlantic Ocean
0°42′28″N 50°5′22″W[1]
Length6,992 km (4,345 mi)[n 1]
Basin size7,000,000 square kilometres (2,702,715 sq mi)[2]
  minimum1 km (0.62 mi)
  maximum100 km (62 mi)
  minimum20 m (66 ft)
  maximum100 m (330 ft)
  average209,000 cubic metres per second (7,400,000 cu ft/s; 209,000,000 L/s; 55,000,000 USgal/s)[5]
  minimum180,000 cubic metres per second (6,400,000 cu ft/s; 180,000,000 L/s; 48,000,000 USgal/s)
  maximum340,000 cubic metres per second (12,000,000 cu ft/s; 340,000,000 L/s; 90,000,000 USgal/s)
Discharge225,000 cubic metres per second (7,900,000 cu ft/s; 225,000,000 L/s; 59,000,000 USgal/s)
Basin features
  leftMarañón, Nanay, Napo, Ampiyacu, Japurá/Caquetá, Rio Negro/Guainía, Putumayo, Badajós, Manacapuru, Urubu, Uatumã, Nhamundá, Trombetas, Maicurú, Curuá, Paru, Jari
  rightUcayali, Jandiatuba, Javary, Jutai, Juruá, Tefé, Coari, Purús, Madeira, Paraná do Ramos, Tapajós, Curuá-Una, Xingu, Pará, Tocantins, Acará, Guamá
Topography of the Amazon River Basin

The headwaters of the Apurímac River on Nevado Mismi had been considered for nearly a century as the Amazon's most distant source, until a 2014 study found it to be the headwaters of the Mantaro River on the Cordillera Rumi Cruz in Peru.[11] The Mantaro and Apurímac rivers join, and with other tributaries form the Ucayali River, which in turn meets the Marañón River upstream of Iquitos, Peru, forming what countries other than Brazil consider to be the main stem of the Amazon. Brazilians call this section the Solimões River above its confluence with the Rio Negro[12] forming what Brazilians call the Amazon at the Meeting of Waters (Portuguese: Encontro das Águas) at Manaus, the largest city on the river.

At an average discharge of about 209,000 cubic metres per second (7,400,000 cu ft/s; 209,000,000 L/s; 55,000,000 USgal/s)—approximately 6,591 cubic kilometres per annum (1,581 cu mi/a), greater than the next seven largest independent rivers combined—the Amazon represents 20% of the global riverine discharge to the ocean.[13] The Amazon basin is the largest drainage basin in the world, with an area of approximately 7,000,000 square kilometres (2,700,000 sq mi).[2] The portion of the river's drainage basin in Brazil alone is larger than any other river's basin. The Amazon enters Brazil with only one-fifth of the flow it finally discharges into the Atlantic Ocean, yet already has a greater flow at this point than the discharge of any other river.[14][15]