Ammonium dinitramide

Ammonium dinitramide (ADN) is the ammonium salt of dinitraminic acid. ADN decomposes under heat to leave only nitrogen, oxygen, and water. The ions are the ammonium ion NH4+ and the dinitramide N(NO2)2.

Ammonium dinitramide
Names
IUPAC name
Ammonium dinitramide
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCard 100.126.585
EC Number
  • 604-184-9
UNII
  • InChI=1S/N3O4.H3N/c4-2(5)1-3(6)7;/h;1H3/q-1;/p+1 Y
    Key: BRUFJXUJQKYQHA-UHFFFAOYSA-O Y
  • InChI=1/N3O4.H3N/c4-2(5)1-3(6)7;/h;1H3/q-1;/p+1
    Key: BRUFJXUJQKYQHA-IKLDFBCSAM
  • [NH4+].[N-]([N+](=O)[O-])[N+](=O)[O-]
Properties
H4N4O4
Molar mass 124.06 g/mol
Density 1.81 g/cm3
Melting point 93 °C (199 °F; 366 K)
Boiling point decomposes at 127 °C (261 °F; 400 K)
Hazards
GHS pictograms
GHS Signal word Danger
H201, H228, H302, H371
P210, P230, P240, P241, P250, P260, P264, P270, P280, P301+P312, P309+P311, P330, P370+P378, P370+P380, P372, P373, P401, P405, P501
Thermochemistry
−150.6 kJ/mol
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
N verify (what is YN ?)
Infobox references

It makes an excellent solid rocket oxidizer with a slightly higher specific impulse than ammonium perchlorate and more importantly, does not leave corrosive hydrogen chloride fumes. This property is also of military interest because halogen free smoke is harder to detect. It decomposes into low molecular mass gases so it contributes to higher performance without creating excessive temperatures if used in gun or rocket propellants. The salt is prone to detonation under high temperatures and shock more so than the perchlorate.

The EURENCO Bofors company produced LMP-103S as a 1-to-1 substitute for hydrazine by dissolving 65% ammonium dinitramide, NH4N(NO2)2, in 35% water solution of methanol and ammonia. LMP-103S has 6% higher specific impulse and 30% higher impulse density than hydrazine monopropellant. Additionally, hydrazine is highly toxic and carcinogenic, while LMP-103S is only moderately toxic. LMP-103S is UN Class 1.4S allowing for transport on commercial aircraft, and was demonstrated on the Prisma satellite in 2010. Special handling is not required. LMP-103S could replace hydrazine as the most commonly used monopropellant.[1]

The ADN-based monopropellant FLP-106 is reported to have improved properties relative to LMP-103S, including higher performance (ISP of 259 s vs. 252 s) and density (1.362 g/cm3 vs. 1.240 g/cm3).[2]


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