Ammonium dinitramide (ADN) is the ammonium salt of dinitraminic acid. ADN decomposes under heat to leave only nitrogen, oxygen, and water. The ions are the ammonium ion NH4+ and the dinitramide N(NO2)2−.
3D model (JSmol)
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|Molar mass||124.06 g/mol|
|Melting point||93 °C (199 °F; 366 K)|
|Boiling point||decomposes at 127 °C (261 °F; 400 K)|
|H201, H228, H302, H371|
|P210, P230, P240, P241, P250, P260, P264, P270, P280, P301+P312, P309+P311, P330, P370+P378, P370+P380, P372, P373, P401, P405, P501|
Gibbs free energy (ΔfG˚)
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
|(what is ?)|
It makes an excellent solid rocket oxidizer with a slightly higher specific impulse than ammonium perchlorate and more importantly, does not leave corrosive hydrogen chloride fumes. This property is also of military interest because halogen free smoke is harder to detect. It decomposes into low molecular mass gases so it contributes to higher performance without creating excessive temperatures if used in gun or rocket propellants. The salt is prone to detonation under high temperatures and shock more so than the perchlorate.
The EURENCO Bofors company produced LMP-103S as a 1-to-1 substitute for hydrazine by dissolving 65% ammonium dinitramide, NH4N(NO2)2, in 35% water solution of methanol and ammonia. LMP-103S has 6% higher specific impulse and 30% higher impulse density than hydrazine monopropellant. Additionally, hydrazine is highly toxic and carcinogenic, while LMP-103S is only moderately toxic. LMP-103S is UN Class 1.4S allowing for transport on commercial aircraft, and was demonstrated on the Prisma satellite in 2010. Special handling is not required. LMP-103S could replace hydrazine as the most commonly used monopropellant.