Anarchist schools of thought

Anarchism is the political philosophy which holds ruling classes[1] and the state to be undesirable, unnecessary and harmful,[2][3] or alternatively as opposing authority and hierarchical organization in the conduct of human relations.[4][5][6][7][8][9]

Proponents of anarchism, known as anarchists, advocate stateless societies based on non-hierarchical[4][10][11] voluntary associations.[12][13] However, anarchist schools of thought can differ fundamentally, supporting anything from extreme individualism to complete collectivism.[3] Strains of anarchism have often been divided into the categories of social anarchism and individualist anarchism or similar dual classifications, also including green anarchism and post-left anarchism.[14][15]

Anarchism is a far-left ideology[16][17] and much of anarchist economics and legal philosophy reflect anti-authoritarian, anti-statist and libertarian interpretations of radical left-wing and socialist politics such as communism, collectivism, free-market, individualism, mutualism, participism and syndicalism, among other libertarian socialist philosophies.[18] At some point, "the collectivist, communist, and liberal and individualist strands of thought from which anarchists drew their inspiration began to assume an increasingly distinctive quality, supporting the rise of a number of anarchist schools".[19]

Anthropologist David Graeber has noted that while the major Marxist schools of thought always have founders (e.g. Leninism, Trotskyism and Maoism), schools of anarchism "almost invariably emerge from some kind of organizational principle or form of practice", citing anarcho-syndicalism, individualist anarchism and platformism as examples.[20]