Angolan War of Independence
The Angolan War of Independence (Portuguese: Guerra de Independência de Angola; 1961–1974), called in Angola the Luta Armada de Libertação Nacional ("Armed Struggle of National Liberation"), began as an uprising against forced cultivation of cotton, and it became a multi-faction struggle for the control of Portugal's overseas province of Angola among three nationalist movements and a separatist movement. The war ended when a leftist military coup in Lisbon in April 1974 overthrew Portugal's Estado Novo dictatorship, and the new regime immediately stopped all military action in the African colonies, declaring its intention to grant them independence without delay.
|Angolan War of Independence|
|Part of the Portuguese Colonial War, the Decolonization of Africa and the Cold War|
Portuguese troops on patrol in Angola
|Commanders and leaders|
António de Oliveira Salazar|
Francisco da Costa Gomes
Balthazar Johannes Vorster
|Casualties and losses|
2,991 killed (1,526 KIA & 1,465 non-combat deaths according to Portuguese Government)|
9,000+ casualties (other estimates)
4,684 with permanent deficiency (physical or psychological)
|30,000–50,000 civilians killed|
|History of Angola|
|Years in Angola|
It was a guerrilla war in which the Portuguese army and security forces waged a counter-insurgency campaign against armed groups mostly dispersed across sparsely populated areas of the vast Angolan countryside. Many atrocities were committed by all forces involved in the conflict. In the end, the Portuguese achieved overall military victory.
In Angola, after the Portuguese withdrew, an armed conflict broke out among the nationalist movements. This war formally came to an end in January 1975 when the Portuguese government, the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA), the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA), and the National Liberation Front of Angola (FNLA) signed the Alvor Agreement. Informally, this civil war resumed by May 1975, including street fighting in Luanda and the surrounding countryside.