Anti-Russian sentiment

Anti-Russian sentiment, commonly referred to as Russophobia, describes prejudice, fear or hatred against Russia, the Russians, and Russian culture.[2][3] Russophilia, by contrast, refers to admiration and fondness of Russia and the Russians.

The Chimera of the Mysterious Russian Soul, by Lena Hades, depicting common stereotypes of foreigners about Russians[1]
"Exposed to the world's contempt". Illustration from the "Puck" satirical magazine, dedicated to the anti-Jewish pogrom in Kishenev (April 1903), June 17, 1903

In the past, Russophobia has included state-sponsored mistreatment and propaganda against the Russians in France[4] and Germany.[5] Nazi Germany, at one point, deemed Russians and other Slavs, an inferior race and "sub-human".[6][7] As a result, millions of Russian civilians and POWs were murdered by the Nazis during World War II,[8] and up to 70 million more were planned to be cleansed as part of Generalplan Ost and for Lebensraum.[9]

In the present, a variety of mass culture clichés and negative stereotypes about Russians exist, mainly in the Western world.[10] Some individuals may have prejudice or hatred against Russians due to history, racism, propaganda, or ingrained stereotypes and hatred.[11][12][13][14][15]