Anti-Ukrainian sentiment

Anti-Ukrainian sentiment, Ukrainophobia or anti-Ukrainianism is animosity towards Ukrainians, Ukrainian culture, language or Ukraine as a nation.[1] Its opposite is Ukrainophilia.

In modern times, significant presence of Ukrainophobia may be distinguished in three geographical areas, where it differs by its roots and manifestation:

Historically, Ukrainian culture was oppressed in states which included the Ukrainian population: Russian Empire, Soviet Union and historical Polish states.

Modern scholars define two types of anti-Ukrainian sentiment. One is based on discrimination of Ukrainians based on their ethnic or cultural origin, a typical kind of xenophobia and racism. Another one is based on the conceptual rejection of Ukrainians, Ukrainian culture, and language as artificial and unnatural; at the turn of the 20th century, several authors supported an assertion that Ukrainian identity and language had been created artificially in order to undermine Russia.[3] This argument has been promulgated by several conservative Russian authors.[1]


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