An anti-establishment view or belief is one which stands in opposition to the conventional social, political, and economic principles of a society. The term was first used in the modern sense in 1958, by the British magazine New Statesman to refer to its political and social agenda. Antiestablishmentarianism (or anti-establishmentarianism) is an expression for such a political philosophy.
|Part of the Politics series|
Anti-establishment in Australia
Anti-establishment in Canada
This section needs expansion with: examples and additional citations. You can help by adding to it. (November 2018)
The People's Party of Canada is seen as anti-establishment political party. Bernier was accused by prominent Conservative politicians such as former prime ministers Stephen Harper and Brian Mulroney of trying to divide the political right. Bernier responded to Power and Politics that he wanted to focus on the disaffected voters stating that "there is 20 per cent of the population who do not even bother to vote that his party will debate discussions that "the leadership and the caucus" did not want to have when he was a party member.
Anti-establishment in Iceland
The Pirate Party of Iceland has a movement of anti-establishment.
Anti-establishment in India
In India, the 1960s saw emergence of a group of writers who called themselves Hungryalists. They were the first anti-establishment and counter culture writers in Bengal whose dissenting voice drew attention of the government and court cases were filed against them. The main anti-establishment voices in Bengali literature have been Malay Roy Choudhury, Samir Roychoudhury, Subimal Basak, Falguny Roy and Tridib Mitra.
However, anti-establishment littlemag movement is still active both in Bangladesh and West Bengal.
Anti-establishment in Italy
The Five Star Movement (M5S) and the League are considered anti-establishment parties. The M5S led by Luigi Di Maio won the most votes in the 2018 Italian general election and formed the largest groups in the Chamber of Deputies and in the Senate. The center-right electoral alliance led by League's secretary Matteo Salvini won a pluralities of seats in both houses. The M5S and the League agreed to form a government coalition, which resulted in Giuseppe Conte being appointed Prime Minister and forming the 65th government of the Italian Republic.
Power to the People, a left-wing to far-left electoral alliance comprising several parties, organizations, associations, committees and social centers, is also an anti-establishment movement. In its manifesto, membership to Power to the People is described as "social and political, anti-liberist and anti-capitalist, communist, socialist, environmentalist, feminist, secular, pacifist, libertarian and southernist left-wing", whose goal as coalition is "to create real democracy, through daily practices, self-governance experiments, socialisation of knowing and popular participation". In the 2018 general election, they obtained 370,320 votes for the Chamber of Deputies (1.13%) and 319,094 votes for the Senate (1.05%), without electing any representatives.
Anti-establishment in Mexico
Anti-establishment in the United Kingdom
In the UK anti-establishment figures and groups are seen as those who argue or act against the ruling class. Having an established church, in England, a British monarchy, an aristocracy, and an unelected upper house in Parliament made up in part by hereditary nobles, the UK has a clearly definable Establishment against which anti-establishment figures can be contrasted. In particular, satirical humour is commonly used to undermine the deference shown by the majority of the population towards those who govern them. Examples of British anti-establishment satire include much of the humour of Peter Cook and Ben Elton; novels such as Rumpole of the Bailey; magazines such as Private Eye; and television programmes like Spitting Image, That Was The Week That Was, and The Prisoner (see also the satire boom of the 1960s). Anti-establishment themes also can be seen in the novels of writers such as Will Self.
However, by operating through the arts and media, the line between politics and culture is blurred, so that pigeonholing figures such as Banksy as either anti-establishment or counter-culture figures can be difficult. The tabloid newspapers such as The Sun, are less subtle, and commonly report on the sex-lives of the Royals simply because it sells newspapers, but in the process have been described as having anti-establishment views that have weakened traditional institutions. On the other hand, as time passes, anti-establishment figures sometimes end up becoming part of the Establishment, as Mick Jagger, the Rolling Stones frontman, became a Knight in 2003, or when The Who frontman Roger Daltrey was made a Commander of the Order of the British Empire in 2005 in recognition of both his music and his work for charity.
Anti-establishment in the United States
Individuals who were anti-establishment often spoke of "fighting the man", "selling out to the Establishment", and "tearing down the Establishment." Many well renowned activists and activist groups innovated great changes to society by standing up to "the Establishment", including the MC5, Black Panther Party, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., Malcolm X, Malvina Reynolds, Dead Kennedys, Howard Zinn, Noam Chomsky, Bernie Sanders, Powell Memo, the Tea Party Movement, and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee.
Many bands or music groups would also be considered anti-establishment, including Public Enemy, System of a Down, Immortal Technique, Black Flag, Rage Against the Machine, Terminator X, Gil-Scott Heron, dead prez, Timothy Leary, Paris, and Lupe Fiasco, among others.
The "Establishment" to these, and these anti-establishment activists was not simply the people of the older generation. Dictionary.com defines the establishment as "the existing power structure in society; the dominant groups in society and their customs or institutions; institutional authority", Merriam-Webster defines the words as "a group of social, economic, and political leaders who form a ruling class" and The Free Dictionary defines it as "A group of people holding most of the power and influence in a government or society." Social critic and "people's" historian Howard Zinn defines the establishment as "Republicans, Democrats, newspapers [and] television" in his book, A People's History of the United States. Later Zinn calls out the "huge military establishment" which one could assume is part of his definition of the "Establishment." In a chapter of the book that expresses Zinn's political theory for the future he defines "the Establishment [as] that uneasy club of business executives, generals, and politicos."
Later in Zinn's book is a reprinted quote from Samuel Huntington, who was a Harvard University political science professor and White House political consultant, that describes the establishment and the coalition a president should establish upon being elected:
- "...the President act[s]...with the support and cooperation of key individuals and groups in the executive office, the federal bureaucracy, Congress, and the more important businesses, banks, law firms, foundations, and media, which constitute the private sector's "Establishment."...The day after [the President's]...election, the size of his majority is almost — if not entirely — irrelevant to his ability to govern the country. What counts then is his ability to mobilize support from the leaders of key institutions in a society and government. ... This coalition must include key people in Congress, the executive branch, and the private-sector 'Establishment'."
The anti-establishment began in the 1940s and continued through the 1950s.
Many World War II veterans, who had seen horrors and inhumanities, began to question every aspect of life, including its meaning. Urged to return to "normal lives" and plagued by post traumatic stress disorder (discussing it was "not manly"), in which many of them went on to found the outlaw motorcycle gang Hell's Angels. Some veterans, who founded the Beat Movement, were denigrated as Beatniks and accused of being "downbeat" on everything. Lawrence Ferlinghetti wrote a Beat autobiography that cited his wartime service.
Citizens had also begun to question authority, especially after the Gary Powers U-2 Incident, wherein President Eisenhower repeatedly assured people the USA was not spying on Russia, then was caught in a blatant lie. This general dissatisfaction was popularized by Peggy Lee's laconic pop song "Is That All There Is?", but remained unspoken and unfocused. It was not until the Baby Boomers came along in huge numbers that protest became organized, who were named by the Beats as "little hipsters".
"Anti-establishment" became a buzzword of the tumultuous 1960s. Young people raised in comparative luxury saw many wrongs perpetuated by society and began to question "the Establishment". Contentious issues included the ongoing Vietnam War with no clear goal or end point, the constant military build-up and diversion of funds for the Cold War, perpetual widespread poverty being ignored, money-wasting boondoggles like pork barrel projects and the Space Race, festering race issues, a stultifying education system, repressive laws and harsh sentences for casual drug use, and a general malaise among the older generation. On the other side, "Middle America" often regarded questions as accusations, and saw the younger generation as spoiled, drugged-out, sex-crazed, unambitious slackers.
Anti-establishment debates were common because they touched on everyday aspects of life. Even innocent questions could escalate into angry diatribes. For example, "Why do we spend millions on a foreign war and a space program when our schools are falling apart?" would be answered with "We need to keep our military strong and ready to stop the Communists from taking over the world." As in any debate, there were valid and unsupported arguments on both sides. "Make love not war" invoked "America, love it or leave it."
As the 1960s simmered, the anti-Establishment adopted conventions in opposition to the Establishment. T-shirts and blue jeans became the uniform of the young because their parents wore collar shirts and slacks. Drug use, with its illegal panache, was favored over the legal consumption of alcohol. Promoting peace and love was the antidote to promulgating hatred and war. Living in genteel poverty was more "honest" than amassing a nest egg and a house in the suburbs. Rock 'n roll was played loudly over easy listening. Dodging the draft was passive resistance to traditional military service. Dancing was free-style, not learned in a ballroom. Over time, anti-establishment messages crept into popular culture: songs, fashion, movies, lifestyle choices, television.
The emphasis on freedom allowed previously hushed conversations about sex, politics, or religion to be openly discussed. A wave of radical liberation movements for minority groups came out of the 1960s, including second-wave feminism; Black Power, Red Power, and the Chicano Movement; and gay liberation. These movements differed from previous efforts to improve minority rights by their opposition to respectability politics and militant tone. Programs were put in place to deal with inequities: Equal Opportunity Employment, the Head Start Program, enforcement of the Civil Rights Act, busing, and others. But the widespread dissemination of new ideas also sparked a backlash and resurgence in conservative religions, new segregated private schools, anti-gay and anti-abortion legislation, and other reversals. Extremists [clarification needed] tended to be heard more because they made good copy for newspapers and television. In many ways, the angry debates of the 1960s led to modern right-wing talk radio and coalitions for "traditional family values".
As the 1960s passed, society had changed to the point that the definition of the Establishment had blurred, and the term "anti-establishment" seemed to fall out of use.
1960s to present: the use of anti-establishment rhetoric in American politics
This section has an unclear citation style. (February 2021)
Howard Zinn, in his bestseller titled A People's History of the United States mentions the concept of "establishment" several times in the book. In reference to the 1896 election and McKinley's victory, when talking about socialism in the early 20th century, a major WWI general strike in 1919, when writing about the aftermath of WWII, in the talk about the repression of a communist party organizer, in discussion of the 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom led by Martin Luther King Jr. and others, when writing about how even when black leaders were elected, they couldn't overcome the establishment and in reference to opposition in the Vietnam war, the establishment before and after the Watergate Scandal, the establishment from Jimmy Carter's Administration to George H.W.'s administration, the Iran-Contra Affair and the establishment, the maintaining of the military establishment even after the Cold War ended, the Vietnam Syndrome that leads to anti-establishment thought, and in a discussion of the 2000 election.
1999 WTO protests, Occupy protests and anti-establishment thought
In 2011, with the rise of anti-austerity protests, the Arab Spring, online activism like Anonymous and the advent of the Occupy protests targeting the power of high finance and fighting for "the 99%," anti-establishment thought has reappeared. BBC News commented in one article that "The sinister Guy Fawkes mask made famous by the film V for Vendetta has become an emblem for anti-establishment protest groups." During the 1999 WTO protests the Earth Rainbow Network had (and still has) a page titled "The Anti-Establishment Files: Info and background material on the coming World Trade Organization meeting in Seattle."
- The Compact Oxford English Dictionary, Second Edition, Clarendon Press, 1991. ISBN 0-19-861258-3
- "The rise of anti-establishment political parties". abc.net.au. 23 May 2014.
- "Anti-immigrant One Nation party may make headway in Queensland poll". 24 November 2017.
- "Opinion | Maxime Bernier's rebellion comes from the right to upend Canadian politics". Washington Post. Retrieved 17 September 2018.
- "Growing desire in Canada for politician willing to 'break the rules': Ipsos poll". Global News. Retrieved 29 November 2018.
- "Stephen Harper Calls Out Maxime Bernier As A Sore Loser". HuffPost Canada. 23 August 2018. Retrieved 29 November 2018.
- "Bernier's departure from Tories will make it harder to beat Trudeau: former PM - iPolitics". iPolitics. 11 September 2018. Retrieved 29 November 2018.
- "Bernier didn't tell anyone from the Conservative Party about his dramatic exit | CBC News". CBC. Retrieved 29 November 2018.
- AFP. "Iceland election: Anti-establishment Pirate Party set to shake up political landscape". thejournal.ie. Retrieved 8 April 2018.
- "Pirate Party Set to Capitalize On Anti-Establishment Sentiment in Iceland's Elections". www.worldpoliticsreview.com. Retrieved 8 April 2018.
- Freytas-Tamura, Kimiko de (30 October 2016). "Iceland's Prime Minister Resigns, After Pirate Party Makes Strong Gains". The New York Times. Retrieved 8 April 2018.
- Amritalok ISSN.0971-4308
- Scherer, Steve. "Italy's anti-establishment leaders revive governing coalition". U.S. Retrieved 4 June 2018.
- "Italy anti-establishment parties make big gains in election". Financial Times. 6 March 2018. Retrieved 4 June 2018.
- "Italy's anti-establishment party leaders agree to terms for government". Financial Review. 1 June 2018. Retrieved 29 November 2018.
- Amaro, Silvia (9 October 2018). "Italy's anti-establishment government hopes the rules change in its favor next May". CNBC. Retrieved 29 November 2018.
- "Manifesto Potere al Popolo". Potere al Popolo (in Italian). Retrieved 4 June 2018.
- "Left-winger wins Mexican presidency". BBC News. 2 July 2018. Retrieved 29 November 2018.
- Rapoza, Kenneth. "Look For Mexico's Soon-To-Be-President AMLO To Be Praised By Anti-Trump Crowd". Forbes. Retrieved 29 November 2018.
- "amlo anti estavlishment - Google Search". www.google.ca. Retrieved 29 November 2018.
- Chris Mitchell. "Self Destruction". Spike Magazine. Archived from the original on 1 November 2006. Retrieved 20 October 2006.
- "Faces of the week". BBC. 15 September 2006. Retrieved 20 October 2006.
- "Prince fears media embarrassment". BBC. 27 September 2006. Retrieved 20 October 2006.
- "Jagger: It's only rock 'n' roll". BBC News. 12 December 2003.
- "Who singer Daltrey collects CBE". BBC. 9 February 2005. Retrieved 20 October 2006.
- "The definition of establishment".
- "Definition of ESTABLISHMENT". merriam-webster.com.
- "Establishment" – via The Free Dictionary.
- "The Seventies: Under Control?". historyisaweapon.com.
- Zinn, Howard. "The Coming Revolt of the Guards." History Is A Weapon. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 March 2012. <http://www.historyisaweapon.com/defcon1/zinncomrev24.html>.
- Zinn, Howard. "The Seventies: Under Control?." History Is A Weapon. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 March 2012. <http://www.historyisaweapon.com/defcon1/zinnseven20.html>.
- Zinn, Howard. "Robber Barons And Rebels." History Is A Weapon. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 March 2012. <http://www.historyisaweapon.com/defcon1/zinnbaron11.html>.
- Zinn, Howard. "War is the Health of the State." History Is A Weapon. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 March 2012. <http://www.historyisaweapon.com/defcon1/zinnwarhea14.html>.
- Zinn, Howard. "Self Help in Hard Times." History Is A Weapon. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 March 2012. <http://www.historyisaweapon.com/defcon1/zinnselhel15.html>.
- Zinn, Howard. "A People's War?" History Is A Weapon. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 March 2012. <http://www.historyisaweapon.com/defcon1/zinnpeopleswar.html>.
- Zinn, Howard. "Or Does it Explode?" History Is A Weapon. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 March 2012. <http://www.historyisaweapon.com/defcon1/zinn17explo.html>.
- Zinn, Howard. "The Seventies: Under Control?" History Is A Weapon. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 March 2012. <http://www.historyisaweapon.com/defcon1/zinnimvivi18.html>
- Zinn, Howard. "Carter-Reagan-Bush: The Bipartisan Consensus." History Is A Weapon. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 March 2012. <http://www.historyisaweapon.com/defcon1/zinncarebu21.html>.
- Zinn, Howard. "The Unreported Resistance." History Is A Weapon. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 March 2012. <http://www.historyisaweapon.com/defcon1/zinnunrepo22.html>.
- Zinn, Howard. "The 2000 Election and the "War on Terrorism"." History Is A Weapon. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 March 2012. <http://www.historyisaweapon.com/defcon1/zinn2000electionch25.html>.
- "V for Vendetta masks: Who's behind them?". BBC News. 20 October 2011.
- "The Anti-Establishment Files: The WTO meeting in Seattle". earthrainbownetwork.com.