Antigua and Barbuda

Antigua and Barbuda (/ænˈtɡ(w)ə...bɑːrˈb(j)də/ (listen); an-TEE-g(w)ə ... bar-B(Y)OO-də) is a sovereign island country in the West Indies in the Americas, lying between the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. It consists of two major islands, Antigua and Barbuda separated by 63 km (39 mi), and smaller islands (including Great Bird, Green, Guiana, Long, Maiden, Prickly Pear, York Islands, Redonda). The permanent population number is about 97,120 (2019 est.), with 97% being resident on Antigua.[1] The capital and largest port and city is St. John's on Antigua, with Codrington being the largest town on Barbuda. Lying near each other, Antigua and Barbuda are in the middle of the Leeward Islands, part of the Lesser Antilles, roughly at 17°N of the equator.

Antigua and Barbuda
Motto: "Each Endeavouring, All Achieving"
Anthem: "Fair Antigua, We Salute Thee"
and largest city
St. John's
17°7′N 61°51′W
Official languagesEnglish
Vernacular languageAntiguan and Barbudan Creole
Ethnic groups
91% African (Black)
4.4% Multiracial
1.7% European (White)
2.9% Other
76.5% Christianity
12.1% Other
5.9% No religion
5.5% Unspecified
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy
Elizabeth II
Sir Rodney Williams
Gaston Browne
House of Representatives
27 February 1967
 from the United Kingdom
1 November 1981
440 km2 (170 sq mi) (182nd)
 Water (%)
 2021 estimate
97,000 (201st)
 2011 census
186/km2 (481.7/sq mi)
GDP (PPP)2019 estimate
$2.731 billion
 Per capita
GDP (nominal)2019 estimate
$1.717 billion
 Per capita
HDI (2019) 0.778[4]
high · 78th
CurrencyEast Caribbean dollar (XCD)
Time zoneUTC-4 (AST)
Driving sideleft
Calling code+1-268
ISO 3166 codeAG
  1. "God Save the Queen" is the official national anthem, but is generally used only on regal and vice-regal occasions.

The island of Antigua was explored by Christopher Columbus in 1493 and named for the Church of Santa María La Antigua.[5] Antigua was colonized by Britain in 1632; Barbuda island was first colonised in 1678.[5] Having been part of the Federal Colony of the Leeward Islands from 1871, Antigua and Barbuda joined the West Indies Federation in 1958.[6] With the breakup of the federation, it became one of the West Indies Associated States in 1967.[7] Following self-governance in its internal affairs, independence was granted from the United Kingdom on 1 November 1981. Antigua and Barbuda is a member of the Commonwealth and Elizabeth II is the country's queen and head of state.[8]

The economy of Antigua and Barbuda is particularly dependent on tourism, which accounts for 80% of GDP. Like other island nations, Antigua and Barbuda are particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate change, such as sea level rise, and increased intensity of extreme weather like hurricanes, which have direct impacts on the island through coastal erosion, water scarcity, and other challenges.[9] As of 2019, Antigua and Barbuda has a 0% individual income tax rate,[10] as does neighboring St. Kitts and Nevis.