Antiochus XIII Asiaticus
Antiochus XIII Philadelphus, known as Asiaticus, was the penultimate ruler of the Seleucid kingdom.
|King of the Seleucid Empire |
(King of Syria)
|Reign||69–64 BC (client king under Pompey)|
|Predecessor||Cleopatra Selene of Syria and Seleucus VII Kybiosaktes|
|Successor||Philip II Philoromaeus|
|Father||Antiochus X Eusebes|
|Mother||Cleopatra Selene of Syria|
He was son of king Antiochus X Eusebes and the Ptolemaic princess Cleopatra Selene of Syria, who acted as regent for Antiochus XIII after his father's death sometime between 92 and 85 BC. Some time after Tigranes had conquered Syria (83 BC), she traveled to Rome to have her sons recognized as kings of Egypt, but to no avail. However, between 75 BC and 73 BC, they were recognized as "Kings of Syria", and "maintained a royal state". Selene was eventually captured and killed by Tigranes. However, after the latter's defeat by Lucius Licinius Lucullus at the Battle of Tigranocerta, the residents of Antioch hailed Antiochus XIII as king, and Lucullus approved his appointment as client ruler of Syria (69 BC).
In 64 BC, Pompey had him deposed and killed by a Syrian chieftain, Sampsiceramus I. Antiochus' death is traditionally said to have ended the Seleucid dynasty, but he was survived by Philip II Philoromaeus for a short time and Seleucus VII Philometor until 58 BC if the latter is identified with same prince who briefly married Berenice IV of Egypt.
- Oliver D. Hoover, Handbook of Syrian Coins: Royal and Civic Issues, Fourth to First Centuries BC [The Handbook of Greek Coinage Series, Volume 9], Lancaster/London, Classical Numismatic Group, 2009, p. 279.
- Cicero, In C. Verrem II 4.61, Appian, Syriaca VIII 49, XI 70, Justin, Historiarum Philippicarum T. Pompeii Trogi XL 2.2 (says Antiochus IX was his father). See also: C.J. Bennett, art. Cleopatra Selene queen of Syria, in Egyptian Royal Genealogy, 2002-2008 (n. 28). Archived 9 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine
- E.R. Bevan, The House of Seleucus, London, 1902, p. 263.
- Appian, Syriaca VIII 49, Justin, Historiarum Philippicarum T. Pompeii Trogi XL 2.2.
- Appian, Syriaca VIII 49, XI 70, Justin, Historiarum Philippicarum T. Pompeii Trogi XL 2.2, Diodorus Siculus, Bibliotheca Historica XL 1a-b.
- Peter Green, Alexander to Actium: The Historical Evolution of the Hellenistic Age (1990), pp. 552, 553, 658, 659
- Edwyn R. Bevan, The House of Seleucus (1902), p. 263
- Downey, Glanville (1951). "The Occupation of Syria by the Romans". Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association. The Johns Hopkins University Press. 82. ISSN 2325-9213. JSTOR 283427.
- Mittag, Peter Franz (2009). "Zur Integration Antiocheias in den Römischen Herrschaftsverband". In Gehrke, Hans-Joachim; Mastrocinque, Attilio (eds.). Rom und der Osten im 1. Jahrhundert V. Chr., Akkulturation oder Kampf der Kulturen? (Akten des Humboldt-Kollegs, Verona, 19.-21. Februar 2004). Hiera, Collana di Studi Storico-Religiosi (in German). 13. Edizioni L. Giordano. ISBN 978-8-886-91931-9.