Antiochus III the Great

Antiochus III the Great (/ænˈtəkəs/; Greek: Ἀντίoχoς Ántíochos; c. 241  3 July 187 BC, ruled April/June 222 – 3 July 187 BC)[1] was a Greek Hellenistic king and the 6th ruler of the Seleucid Empire.[2][3][4] He ruled over the region of Syria and large parts of the rest of western Asia towards the end of the 3rd century BC. Rising to the throne at the age of eighteen in 222 BC, his early campaigns against the Ptolemaic Kingdom were unsuccessful, but in the following years Antiochus gained several military victories and substantially expanded the empire's territory. His traditional designation, the Great, reflects an epithet he assumed. He also assumed the title Basileus Megas (Greek for "Great King"), the traditional title of the Persian kings. A militarily active ruler, Antiochus restored much of the territory of the Seleucid Empire, before suffering a serious setback, towards the end of his reign, in his war against Rome.

Antiochus III the Great
Basileus Megas
Bust from the Louvre, possibly Roman copy of Hellenistic portrait of Antiochus III
Megas Basileus of the Seleucid Empire
ReignApril/June 222 – 3 July 187 BC
(36 years)
PredecessorSeleucus III Ceraunus
SuccessorSeleucus IV Philopator
Bornc. 241 BC
Susa, Seleucid Empire
Died3 July 187 BC (aged 54)
Susa, Seleucid Empire
SpouseLaodice III
Euboea of Chalcis
IssueAntiochus
Seleucus IV Philopator
Ardys
Laodice of Bactria
Laodice IV, Queen of the Seleucid Empire
Cleopatra I Syra, Queen of Egypt
Antiochis, Queen of Cappadocia
Antiochus IV
Names
Antiochos Mégas
Ἀντίoχoς ὁ Μέγας
("Antiochus the Great")
DynastySeleucid
FatherSeleucus II Callinicus
MotherLaodice II
ReligionGreek polytheism

Declaring himself the "champion of Greek freedom against Roman domination", Antiochus III waged a four-year war against the Roman Republic beginning in mainland Greece in the autumn of 192 BC[5][6] before being decisively defeated at the Battle of Magnesia. He died three years later on campaign in the east.