Anwar Sadat

Muhammad Anwar el-Sadat[lower-alpha 1] (25 December 1918 – 6 October 1981) was an Egyptian politician and military officer who served as the third president of Egypt, from 15 October 1970 until his assassination by fundamentalist army officers on 6 October 1981. Sadat was a senior member of the Free Officers who overthrew King Farouk in the Egyptian Revolution of 1952, and a close confidant of President Gamal Abdel Nasser, under whom he served as Vice President twice and whom he succeeded as president in 1970. In 1978, Sadat and Menachem Begin, Prime Minister of Israel, signed a peace treaty in cooperation with United States President Jimmy Carter, for which they were recognized with the Nobel Peace Prize.

Anwar Sadat
أنور السادات
Sadat in 1980
3rd President of Egypt
In office
15 October 1970  6 October 1981
Acting: 28 September 1970 – 15 October 1970
Prime Minister
Vice President
Preceded byGamal Abdel Nasser
Succeeded bySufi Abu Taleb (Acting)
37th Prime Minister of Egypt
In office
15 May 1980  6 October 1981
PresidentHimself
Preceded byMustafa Khalil
Succeeded byHosni Mubarak
In office
26 March 1973  25 September 1974
PresidentHimself
Preceded byAziz Sedki
Succeeded byAbd El Aziz Muhammad Hegazi
Vice President of Egypt
In office
19 December 1969  14 October 1970
PresidentGamal Abdel Nasser
Preceded byHussein el-Shafei
Succeeded byAli Sabri
In office
17 February 1964  26 March 1964
PresidentGamal Abdel Nasser
Preceded byHussein el-Shafei
Succeeded byZakaria Mohieddin
Speaker of the National Assembly of Egypt
In office
21 July 1960  20 January 1969
PresidentGamal Abdel Nasser
Preceded byAbdel Latif Boghdadi
Succeeded byMohamed Labib Skokeir
Personal details
Born
Muhammad Anwar el-Sadat
محمد أنور السادات

(1918-12-25)25 December 1918
Monufia, Sultanate of Egypt
Died6 October 1981(1981-10-06) (aged 62)
Cairo, Egypt
Manner of deathAssassination
Resting placeUnknown Soldier Memorial
Political partyNational Democratic Party
Other political
affiliations
Arab Socialist Union
Spouses
Children7
Alma materUniversity of Alexandria
Signature
Military service
AllegianceEgypt
Branch/service Royal Egyptian Army
Egyptian Army
Years of service1938–1952
Rank Colonel (active)
Field Marshal (honorary)

In his eleven years as president, he changed Egypt's trajectory, departing from many of the political and economic tenets of Nasserism, re-instituting a multi-party system, and launching the Infitah economic policy. As President, he led Egypt in the Yom Kippur War of 1973 to regain Egypt's Sinai Peninsula, which Israel had occupied since the Six-Day War of 1967, making him a hero in Egypt and, for a time, the wider Arab World. Afterwards, he engaged in negotiations with Israel, culminating in the Egypt–Israel peace treaty; this won him and Menachem Begin the Nobel Peace Prize, making Sadat the first Muslim Nobel laureate. Although reaction to the treaty—which resulted in the return of Sinai to Egypt—was generally favorable among Egyptians,[5] it was rejected by the country's Muslim Brotherhood and the left, which felt Sadat had abandoned efforts to ensure a Palestinian state.[5] With the exception of Sudan, the Arab world and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) strongly opposed Sadat's efforts to make a separate peace with Israel without prior consultations with the Arab states.[5] His refusal to reconcile with them over the Palestinian issue resulted in Egypt being suspended from the Arab League from 1979 to 1989.[6][7][8][9] The peace treaty was also one of the primary factors that led to his assassination; on 6 October 1981, militants led by Khalid Islambouli opened fire on Sadat with automatic rifles during the 6 October parade in Cairo, killing him.


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