Arab Revolt

The Arab Revolt (Arabic: الثورة العربية, al-Thawra al-‘Arabiyya; Turkish: Arap İsyanı) or the Great Arab Revolt (الثورة العربية الكبرى, al-Thawra al-‘Arabiyya al-Kubrá) was a military uprising of Arab forces against the Ottoman Empire in the Middle Eastern theatre of World War I. On the basis of the McMahon–Hussein Correspondence, an agreement between the British government and Hussein bin Ali, Sharif of Mecca, the revolt was officially initiated at Mecca on June 10, 1916.[lower-alpha 1] The aim of the revolt was to create a single unified and independent Arab state stretching from Aleppo in Syria to Aden in Yemen, which the British had promised to recognize.

Arab Revolt
Part of the Middle Eastern theatre of World War I

Soldiers of the Sharifian Army in northern Yanbu carrying the Flag of the Arab Revolt.
DateJune 1916 – October 1918
Location
Result
Territorial
changes
Partition of the Ottoman Empire
Belligerents
 Hejaz
Support:
 United Kingdom
 France

 Ottoman Empire


Support:
 Germany
Commanders and leaders
Hussein bin Ali
Faisal bin Hussein
Abdullah bin Hussein
Ali bin Hussein
T. E. Lawrence
Edmund Allenby
Édouard Brémond [fr]
Mehmed V
Djemal Pasha
Fakhri Pasha
Muhittin Akyüz
Saud bin Abdulaziz
Otto Liman von Sanders
Strength
30,000 (June 1916)[1]
50,000+ (1918)[2]
May 1916:
6,500–7,000 troops[3]
September 1918:
25,000 troops
340 guns[1]
Casualties and losses
Unknown 47,000+
5,000 killed
10,000 wounded[4]
22,000+ captured[5][6][7]
~10,000 disease deaths

The Sharifian Army led by Hussein and the Hashemites, with military backing from the British Egyptian Expeditionary Force, successfully fought and expelled the Ottoman military presence from much of the Hejaz and Transjordan. The rebellion eventually took Damascus and set up a short-lived monarchy led by Faisal, a son of Hussein.

Following the Sykes–Picot Agreement, the Middle East was later partitioned by the British and French into mandate territories rather than a unified Arab state, and the British reneged on their promise to support a unified independent Arab state.