Arab Spring

The Arab Spring (Arabic: الربيع العربي) was a series of anti-government protests, uprisings, and armed rebellions that spread across much of the Arab world in the early 2010s. It began in response to corruption and economic stagnation and was influenced by the Tunisian Revolution.[1][2] From Tunisia, the protests then spread to five other countries: Libya, Egypt, Yemen, Syria, and Bahrain, where either the ruler was deposed (Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, Muammar Gaddafi, Hosni Mubarak, and Ali Abdullah Saleh) or major uprisings and social violence occurred including riots, civil wars, or insurgencies. Sustained street demonstrations took place in Morocco, Iraq, Algeria, Iranian Khuzestan,[citation needed] Lebanon, Jordan, Kuwait, Oman, and Sudan. Minor protests took place in Djibouti, Mauritania, Palestine, Saudi Arabia, and the Moroccan-occupied Western Sahara.[3] A major slogan of the demonstrators in the Arab world is ash-shaʻb yurīd isqāṭ an-niẓām! ("the people want to bring down the regime").[4]

Arab Spring
Clockwise from the upper left corner:
Protesters gathered at Tahrir Square in Cairo, Egypt 9 February 2011;
Habib Bourguiba Boulevard, protesters in Tunis, Tunisia 14 January 2011;
dissidents in Sanaa, Yemen calling for president Ali Abdullah Saleh to resign on 3 February 2011;
crowds of hundreds of thousands in Baniyas, Syria 29 April 2011
Date17 December 2010 – December 2012 (10 years ago)
Location
Caused by
Goals
Methods
Resulted inArab Spring concurrent incidents,
Arab Winter,
Impact of the Arab Spring,
and Arab Summer
Full result by country
Casualties
Death(s)c. 61,000 deaths in total (International estimate; see table below)

The importance of external factors versus internal factors to the protests' spread and success is contested.[5] Social media is one way governments try to inhibit protests. In many countries, governments shut down certain sites or blocked Internet service entirely, especially in the times preceding a major rally.[6] Governments also accused content creators of unrelated crimes or shutting down communication on specific sites or groups, such as Facebook.[7] In the news, social media has been heralded as the driving force behind the swift spread of revolution throughout the world, as new protests appear in response to success stories shared from those taking place in other countries.

The wave of initial revolutions and protests faded by mid-2012, as many Arab Spring demonstrations met with violent responses from authorities,[8][9][10] as well as from pro-government militias, counter-demonstrators, and militaries. These attacks were answered with violence from protesters in some cases.[11][12][13] Large-scale conflicts resulted: the Syrian Civil War;[14][15] the rise of ISIL, insurgency in Iraq and the following civil war;[16] the Egyptian Crisis, coup, and subsequent unrest and insurgency;[17] the Libyan Civil War; and the Yemeni Crisis and following civil war.[18] Regimes that lacked major oil wealth and hereditary succession arrangements were more likely to undergo regime change.[19]

A power struggle continued after the immediate response to the Arab Spring. While leadership changed and regimes were held accountable, power vacuums opened across the Arab world. Ultimately, it resulted in a contentious battle between a consolidation of power by religious elites and the growing support for democracy in many Muslim-majority states.[20] The early hopes that these popular movements would end corruption, increase political participation, and bring about greater economic equity quickly collapsed in the wake of the counter-revolutionary moves by foreign state actors in Yemen,[21] the regional and international military interventions in Bahrain and Yemen, and the destructive civil wars in Syria, Iraq, Libya, and Yemen.[22]

Some have referred to the succeeding and still ongoing conflicts as the Arab Winter.[14][15][16][17][18] As of May 2018, only the uprising in Tunisia has resulted in a transition to constitutional democratic governance.[3] Recent uprisings in Sudan and Algeria show that the conditions that started the Arab Spring have not faded and political movements against authoritarianism and exploitation are still occurring.[23] In 2019, multiple uprisings and protest movements in Algeria, Sudan, Iraq, Lebanon, and Egypt have been seen as a continuation of the Arab Spring.[24][25]

In 2021, multiple conflicts are still continuing that might be seen as a result of the Arab Spring. The Syrian Civil War has caused massive political instability and economic hardship in Syria, with the Syrian pound plunging to new lows.[26] In Libya, a major civil war recently concluded, with Western powers and Russia sending in proxy fighters.[27][28] In Yemen, a civil war continues to affect the country.[29] In Lebanon, a major banking crisis is threatening the country's economy as well as that of neighboring Syria.

  Regime brought down by revolution   Regime brought down by civil unrest   Changes in government called for during civil unrest   Armed rebellion   Mass protests   Limited protests   Protests in non-Arab nations