Arab states of the Persian Gulf


The Arab states of the Persian Gulf refers to a group of Arab states which border the Persian Gulf. There are seven member states of the Arab League in the region: Bahrain, Kuwait, Iraq, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates.[1][2][3]

The term has been used in different contexts to refer to a number of Arab states in the region. The prominent regional political union Gulf Cooperation Council states which includes Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates.[4][5][6] And historically, the British Empire Protectorates in the Gulf[7][8][9] and the Trucial States which eventually formed the United Arab Emirates.[10][11][12]

Politics


Some states are constitutional monarchies with elected parliaments. Bahrain (Majlis al Watani) and Kuwait (Majlis al Ummah) have legislatures with members elected by the population.[citation needed]

The Sultanate of Oman also has an advisory council (Majlis ash-Shura) that is popularly elected.[citation needed] In the UAE, a federation of seven monarchical emirates, the Federal National Council functions only as an advisory body, but some of its members are now chosen via a limited electoral college nominated by the seven rulers.[citation needed] Saudi Arabia remains a hereditary monarchy with limited political representation. In Qatar, an elected national parliament has been mooted and is written into the new constitution, but elections are yet to be held.[13] Saudi Arabia and Qatar are the two Arab states and absolute monarchies to have never held elections since their respective establishments as nations in 1932 and 1971.[14] Iraq is the only federal republic situated on the Persian Gulf.

Freedom of press


Press in the Arab states of the Persian Gulf have varying degrees of freedom with Kuwait topping the league with a lively press that enjoys considerably more freedom than its Persian Gulf counterparts according to Freedom House and Reporters Without Borders. Both organizations rank Kuwait's press as the most free of all Arab states of the Persian Gulf and, in fact, rank amongst the top three most free press in the Arab world.[15][16] Qatar and Oman come in second and third respectively within the regional ranks.

Peace


The six Arab states of the Persian Gulf lie in a volatile region and their six governments, with varying degrees of success and effort, try and advance peace in their own countries and other countries. However, Arab countries in the Persian Gulf region - specifically Saudi Arabia and Qatar - stand accused of funding Islamist militants such as Hamas and the Muslim Brotherhood.[17] According to the Institute of Economics and Peace (IEP)'s Global Peace Index of 2016, the six governments had varying degrees of success in maintaining peace amongst their respective borders with Qatar ranked number 1 amongst its regional peers as the most peaceful regional and Middle Eastern nation (and ranked 34 worldwide) while Kuwait ranks second in both the regional and the Middle East region (and 51 worldwide) followed by the UAE in the third spot (61 worldwide).[18]

Economy


Map of the Gulf Cooperation Council's members (Iraq is not a member).

All of these Arab states have significant revenues from petroleum. The United Arab Emirates has been successfully diversifying the economy. 79% of UAE's total GDP comes from non-oil sectors.[19] Oil accounts for only 2% of Dubai's GDP.[20] Bahrain has the Persian Gulf's first "post-oil" economy because the Bahraini economy does not rely on oil.[21] Since the late 20th century, Bahrain has heavily invested in the banking and tourism sectors.[22] The country's capital, Manama is home to many large financial structures. The UAE and Bahrain have a high Human Development Index (ranking 31 and 42 worldwide respectively in 2019) and was recognised by the World Bank as high income economies.

In addition, the small coastal states (especially Bahrain and Kuwait) were successful centers of trade and commerce prior to oil. Eastern Arabia also had significant pearl banks, but the pearling industry collapsed in the 1930s after the development of cultured pearl methods by Japanese scientists.[citation needed]

According to the World Bank, most of these Arab states have been the world's most generous donors of aid as a share of GDP.[23]


See also


References


  1. Mary Ann Tétreault; Gwenn Okruhlik; Andrzej Kapiszewski (2011). Political Change in the Arab Gulf States: Stuck in Transition. The authors first focus on the politics of seven Gulf states: Bahrain, Iraq, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the UAE.
  2. World Migration 2005 Costs and Benefits of International Migration. International Organization for Migration. 2005. p. 53. ISBN 9788171885503.
  3. "U.S. Official to Tour Persian Gulf Arab Lands". The New York Times. 1987. A leading American diplomat will start a trip to Iraq and six other Arab countries of the Persian Gulf region this week to discuss the Iran-Iraq war, Administration officials said today.
  4. Hertog, Steffen (2014). Arab Gulf States : an assessment of nationalisation policies. Retrieved 12 May 2021.
  5. Peterson, J. E. (2009). Life after Oil: Economic Alternatives for the Arab Gulf States. Duke University Press. Retrieved 13 May 2021.
  6. "Gulf countries". European Commission. Retrieved 13 May 2021. The Gulf Cooperation Council countries – Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates – are important markets for EU agricultural exports.
  7. Onley, James (2009). "Britain and the Gulf Shaikhdoms, 1820-1971: The Politics of Protection". CIRS Occasional Papers. Retrieved 16 May 2021.
  8. Watt, D. C. (1964). "Britain and the Future of the Persian Gulf States". The World Today. Royal Institute of International Affairs. 20 (11): 488–496. Retrieved 16 May 2021.
  9. Albaharna, Husain (April 1969). "The Legal Status of the Arabian Gulf States. A Study of their Treaty Relations and their International Problems". International & Comparative Law Quarterly. Manchester University Press. 18 (2): 518–519. Retrieved 12 May 2021.
  10. Bey, Frauke (1996). From Trucial States to United Arab Emirates. UK: Longman. pp. 296–297. ISBN 978-0-582-27728-1.
  11. Balfour-Paul, G., The End of Empire in the Middle East: Britain's Relinquishment of Power in her Last Three Arab Dependencies, Cambridge University Press, 1984, ISBN 978-0-521-46636-3
  12. Barnwell, Kristi Nichole (2011). "From trucial states to nation state : decolonization and the formation of the United Arab Emirates, 1952-1971". The University of Texas at Austin. Retrieved 16 May 2021. For the rulers of the Arab emirates of the Persian Gulf, Wilson‘s announcement signaled an end of British military protection, and the beginning of a process of negotiations that culminated in the establishment of the United Arab Emirates on December 3, 1971. An examination of the process by which the individual Persian Gulf states became a sovereign federation presents an opportunity to examine the roles of nationalism and anti-imperialism played in the establishment of the Union. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  13. Gerd Nonneman, "Political Reform in the Gulf Monarchies: From Liberalisation to Democratisation? A Comparative Perspective", in Anoushiravan Ehteshami and Steven Wright (eds.)(2007), Reform in the Middle East Oil Monarchies, ISBN 978-0-86372-323-0, pp. 3-45.
  14. Robbers, Gerhard (2007). Encyclopedia of world constitutions, Volume 1. p. 791. ISBN 978-0-8160-6078-8.
  15. "Freedom of the Press 2016". freedomhouse.org. April 26, 2016.
  16. "2016 World Press Freedom Index". Archived from the original on 2017-02-14.
  17. "Four huge Middle Eastern powers just cut ties with Qatar over 'terrorism' links". The Independent. June 5, 2017.
  18. "Global Peace Index 2016" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-06-15.
  19. "Diversification raises non-oil share of UAE's GDP to 71%". gulfnews.com.
  20. "Oil Makes Up 2% of Dubai GDP Post-Diversification - Gulf Jobs News".
  21. "Bahrain: Reform-Promise and Reality" (PDF). J.E. Peterson. p. 157.
  22. "Bahrain's economy praised for diversity and sustainability". Bahrain Economic Development Board. Archived from the original on December 28, 2010. Retrieved 24 June 2012.
  23. "The haves and the have-nots". The Economist. 11 July 2013.

Further reading