Argentine Antarctica

Argentine Antarctica (Spanish: Antártida Argentina or Sector Antártico Argentino)[4] is an area of Antarctica claimed by Argentina as part of its national territory. It consists of the Antarctic Peninsula and a triangular section extending to the South Pole, delimited by the 25° West and 74° West meridians and the 60° South parallel.[5] This region overlaps the British and Chilean claims in Antarctica. Argentina's Antarctic claim is based on its continued presence in the region since 1904, and the area's proximity to the South American continent. Argentina's claim to this area is subject to the Antarctic Treaty.[6][7] Administratively, Argentine Antarctica is a department of the province of Tierra del Fuego, Antarctica, and South Atlantic Islands. The provincial authorities are based in Ushuaia. Despite the claim to this Antarctic area, Argentinean authority extends no further than the nation's bases.[8] The Argentine exploration of the continent started early in the 20th century. José María Sobral was the first Argentine to set foot on Antarctica, in 1902, where he spent two seasons with the Swedish Antarctic Expedition of Otto Nordenskiöld. Shortly afterward, in 1904, the Orcadas permanent base was already fully operational. Years later other bases would be created, some permanent and others seasonal. The first Argentine expedition to reach the South Pole was the 1965 Operación 90.

Argentine Antarctica
Antártida Argentina
Argentine Antarctica map since 1950. Orcadas base from 1904.
Location in Antarctica
Country Argentina
Province Tierra del Fuego
First expedition1901–1904
Founded byJosé María Sobral
  GovernorGustavo Melella
  Total1,461,597 km2 (564,326 sq mi)
  Land965,597 km2 (372,819 sq mi)
 (2010 Census)[1][2]
  Density0.00032/km2 (0.00083/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC-3
Argentine Postal Code
Area codes0054 + 02901
Esperanza and Marambio Stations: 0054 + 02964
First baseOrcadas Base (1904)[3]
Number of bases13 bases (6 permanents and 7 seasonals)
64 others (huts, refuges, camps)

Argentine activities in Antarctica are coordinated by the Instituto Antártico Argentino (IAA) and Dirección Nacional del Antártico (DNA).

The estimated land area is 1,461,597 km2 (564,326 sq mi), of which 965,597 km2 (372,819 sq mi). The ice in the glacier shell has a thickness of 2 km on average. Temperatures range from 0 °C in summer and -60 °C in winter although in certain points it may drop to approximately -82 °C.

Time zone UTC-3 is used as in the South American continent.

Argentina has six permanent Antarctic Stations and seven Summer Stations.

According to the last Argentine national census, in October 2010, Argentine Antarctica has 230 inhabitants (including 9 families and 16 children) at six permanent bases: 75 at Marambio, 66 at Esperanza, 33 at Carlini, 20 at San Martín, 19 at Belgrano II and 17 at Orcadas.[9] As an official Argentine district within Tierra del Fuego Province, residents take part in general elections.[10]

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