Arnold J. Toynbee

Arnold Joseph Toynbee CH FBA (/ˈtɔɪnbi/; 14 April 1889 – 22 October 1975) was a British historian, a philosopher of history, an author of numerous books and a research professor of international history at the London School of Economics and King's College London. From 1918 to 1950, Toynbee was considered a leading specialist on international affairs.[6]

Arnold J. Toynbee

Born
Arnold Joseph Toynbee

(1889-04-14)14 April 1889
Died22 October 1975(1975-10-22) (aged 86)
NationalityBritish
OccupationHistorian
Known forUniversal history
Spouse(s)
  • Rosalind Murray
    (m. 1913; div. 1946)
  • Veronica M. Boulter
    (m. 1946)
Children
Relatives
Academic background
Alma materBalliol College, Oxford
InfluencesIbn Khaldun[1] · Koneczny[2] · Spengler[3]
Academic work
InstitutionsBalliol College, Oxford
King's College, London
London School of Economics
Royal Institute of International Affairs
Notable worksA Study of History
InfluencedDawson · Quigley[4] · Wilkinson[5]

He is best known for his 12-volume A Study of History (1934–1961). With his prodigious output of papers, articles, speeches and presentations, and numerous books translated into many languages, Toynbee was a widely read and discussed scholar in the 1940s and 1950s. By the 1960s his magnum opus had fallen out of favour among mainstream historians, due to recognition that Toynbee favoured myths, allegories and religion over factual data.