Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington

Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, KG, GCB, GCH, PC, FRS (1 May 1769 – 14 September 1852) was an Anglo-Irish soldier and Tory statesman who was one of the leading military and political figures of 19th-century Britain, serving twice as prime minister of the United Kingdom. He is among the commanders who won and ended the Napoleonic Wars when the coalition defeated Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815.

The Duke of Wellington
Portrait by Thomas Lawrence, c. 1815-16
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
In office
17 November 1834  9 December 1834
MonarchWilliam IV
Preceded byThe Viscount Melbourne
Succeeded bySir Robert Peel
In office
22 January 1828  16 November 1830
MonarchsGeorge IV
William IV
Preceded byThe Viscount Goderich
Succeeded byThe Earl Grey
Commander-in-Chief of the British Army
In office
15 August 1842  14 September 1852
Preceded byThe Viscount Hill
Succeeded byThe Viscount Hardinge
In office
22 January 1827  22 January 1828
MonarchGeorge IV
Preceded byThe Duke of York and Albany
Succeeded byThe Viscount Hill
Leader of the House of Lords
In office
3 September 1841  27 June 1846
Prime MinisterSir Robert Peel
Preceded byThe Viscount Melbourne
Succeeded byThe Marquess of Lansdowne
In office
14 November 1834  18 April 1835
Prime MinisterSir Robert Peel
Preceded byThe Viscount Melbourne
Succeeded byThe Viscount Melbourne
In office
22 January 1828  22 November 1830
Prime MinisterHimself
Preceded byThe Viscount Goderich
Succeeded byThe Earl Grey
Additional positions
Personal details
Arthur Wesley

1 May 1769
Dublin, Ireland
Died14 September 1852(1852-09-14) (aged 83)
Walmer, England
Resting placeSt Paul's Cathedral
Political party
(m. 1806; died 1831)
Military service
AllegianceUnited Kingdom
Branch/serviceBritish Army
Years of service1787–1852
RankField Marshal
Selected battles
     1799–1803      1807–1813      1815

Wellesley was born in Dublin into the Protestant Ascendancy in Ireland. He was commissioned as an ensign in the British Army in 1787, serving in Ireland as aide-de-camp to two successive lords lieutenant of Ireland. He was also elected as a member of Parliament in the Irish House of Commons. He was a colonel by 1796 and saw action in the Netherlands and in India, where he fought in the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War at the Battle of Seringapatam. He was appointed governor of Seringapatam and Mysore in 1799 and, as a newly appointed major-general, won a decisive victory over the Maratha Confederacy at the Battle of Assaye in 1803.

Wellesley rose to prominence as a general during the Peninsular campaign of the Napoleonic Wars, and was promoted to the rank of field marshal after leading the allied forces to victory against the French Empire at the Battle of Vitoria in 1813. Following Napoleon's exile in 1814, he served as the ambassador to France and was granted a dukedom. During the Hundred Days in 1815, he commanded the allied army which, together with a Prussian Army under Field Marshal Gebhard von Blücher, defeated Napoleon at Waterloo. Wellington's battle record is exemplary; he ultimately participated in some 60 battles during the course of his military career.

Wellington is famous for his adaptive defensive style of warfare, resulting in several victories against numerically superior forces while minimising his own losses. He is regarded as one of the greatest defensive commanders of all time, and many of his tactics and battle plans are still studied in military academies around the world. After the end of his active military career, he returned to politics. He was twice British prime minister as a member of the Tory party from 1828 to 1830 and for a little less than a month in 1834. He oversaw the passage of the Roman Catholic Relief Act 1829, but opposed the Reform Act 1832. He continued as one of the leading figures in the House of Lords until his retirement and remained Commander-in-Chief of the British Army until his death.

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