Article 4 of the European Convention on Human Rights
Article 4 of the European Convention on Human Rights prohibits slavery and forced labour. Conscription, national service, prison labour, service exacted in cases of emergency or calamity, and "normal civic obligations" are excepted from these definitions.
Article 4 – Prohibition of slavery and forced labour
- No one shall be held in slavery or servitude.
- No one shall be required to perform forced or compulsory labour.
- For the purpose of this article the term "forced or compulsory labour" shall not include:
- any work required to be done in the ordinary course of detention imposed according to the provisions of Article 5 of this Convention or during conditional release from such detention;
- any service of a military character or, in case of conscientious objectors in countries where they are recognised, service exacted instead of compulsory military service;
- any service exacted in case of an emergency or calamity threatening the life or well-being of the community;
- any work or service which forms part of normal civic obligations.
Violations found by the European Court of Human Rights
- Siliadin v. France, application No. 73316/01 (adjudicated in 2005; case of servitude and forced or compulsory labour)
- Rantsev v. Cyprus and Russia, application No. 25965/04 (adjudicated in 2010; case of human trafficking)
- C. N. and V. v. France, application No. 67724/09 (adjudicated in 2012)
- C. N. v. the United Kingdom, application No. 4239/08 (adjudicated in 2012)
- Chitos v. Greece application No. 51637/12 (adjudicated in 2015)
- L. E. v. Greece, application No. 71545/12 (adjudicated in 2016)
- Chowdury and Others v. Greece, application No. 21884/15 (adjudicated in 2017)
- S.M. v. Croatia, application No. 60561/14 (adjudicated in 2018)
- T.I. and Others v. Greece, application No. 40311/10 (adjudicated in 2019)
- Harris, David; O'Boyle, Michael; Warbrick, Colin (2014). Law of the European Convention on Human Rights (3rd ed.). Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 279–286. ISBN 978-0-19-960639-9.
- R v. Knowles, ex parte Somersett (1772)
- Slavery at common law
- Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution
- "Human trafficking criminalised after 14-year-old girl kept in domestic servitude in Paris". Impact of the European Convention on Human Rights. Retrieved 2018-06-21.
- "Death of an alleged victim of human trafficking". Impact of the European Convention on Human Rights. Retrieved 2018-06-21.
- "Practical reforms to combat human trafficking". Impact of the European Convention on Human Rights. Retrieved 2018-06-21.