Anatolia,[lower-alpha 1] also known as Asia Minor,[lower-alpha 2][lower-alpha 3] is a large peninsula in Western Asia and is the western-most extension of continental Asia. The land mass of Anatolia constitutes most of the territory of contemporary Turkey. Geographically, the Anatolian region is bounded by the Turkish Straits to the north-west, the Black Sea to the north, the Armenian Highlands to the east, the Mediterranean Sea to the south, and the Aegean Sea to the west. Topographically, the Sea of Marmara connects the Black Sea with the Aegean Sea through the Bosporus strait and the Dardanelles strait, and separates Anatolia from Thrace in the Balkan peninsula of Southeastern Europe.
|Etymology||"the East", from Greek|
|Area||756,000 km2 (292,000 sq mi)|
(incl. Southeastern and Eastern Anatolia Region)
|Largest city||Ankara (pop. 5,700,000)|
|Demonym||Anatolian (Turkish: Anadolulu)|
|Languages||Turkish, Kurdish, Armenian, Greek, Kabardian, North Caucasian languages, various others|
|Ethnic groups||Turks, Kurds, Armenians, Chechens, Circassians, Greeks, Laz, various others|
The eastern border of Anatolia is a line between the Gulf of Alexandretta and the Black Sea, bounded by the Armenian Highlands to the east and Mesopotamia to the south-east, thus Anatolia comprises approximately the western two-thirds of the Asian territory of Turkey. Anatolia sometimes is synonymous with Asian Turkey, thereby including the western part of the Armenian Highlands and northern Mesopotamia and making its eastern and southern borders coterminous with Turkey's borders.
The ancient Anatolian peoples spoke the now-extinct Anatolian languages of the Indo-European language family, which were largely replaced by the Greek language during classical antiquity as well as during the Hellenistic, Roman, and Byzantine periods. The major Anatolian languages included Hittite, Luwian, and Lydian, while other, poorly attested local languages included Phrygian and Mysian. Hurro-Urartian languages were spoken in the southeastern kingdom of Mitanni, while Galatian, a Celtic language, was spoken in Galatia, central Anatolia. Ancient peoples in the region included Galatians, Hurrians, Assyrians, Hattians, Cimmerians, as well as Ionian, Dorian, and Aeolic Greeks. The Turkification of Anatolia began under the rule of the Seljuk Empire in the late 11th century, continued under the Ottoman Empire between the late 13th and early 20th centuries, and continues today under the Republic of Turkey. However, various non-Turkic languages continue to be spoken by minorities in Anatolia, including Kurdish, Neo-Aramaic, Armenian, North Caucasian languages, Laz, Georgian, and Greek.