Assam

Assam (/əˈsæm, æˈsæm/,[10][11] Assamese: [ˈɔxɔm] (listen)) is a state in northeastern India, south of the eastern Himalayas along the Brahmaputra and Barak River valleys. Assam covers an area of 78,438 km2 (30,285 sq mi). The state is bordered by Bhutan and Arunachal Pradesh to the north; Nagaland and Manipur to the east; Meghalaya, Tripura, Mizoram and Bangladesh to the south; and West Bengal to the west via the Siliguri Corridor, a 22 kilometres (14 mi) wide strip of land that connects the state to the rest of India. Assamese is the official and most commonly spoken language of the state, followed by Bengali, which is official in the Barak Valley and Bodo which is official in Bodoland Territorial Region.

Assam
Anthem: "O Mur Apunar Desh"
(O my Dearest Country)
Coordinates (Dispur, Guwahati): 26.14°N 91.77°E / 26.14; 91.77
Country India
Statehood26 January 1950[1]
CapitalDispur
Largest cityGuwahati
Districts34
Government
  BodyGovernment of Assam
  GovernorJagdish Mukhi[2]
  Chief MinisterHimanta Biswa Sarma (BJP)
  LegislatureUnicameral (126 seats)
  Parliamentary constituencyRajya Sabha (7 seats)
Lok Sabha (14 seats)
  High CourtGauhati High Court
Area
  Total78,438 km2 (30,285 sq mi)
Area rank16th
Elevation
45−1,960 m (148−6,430 ft)
Population
 (2011)
  Total31,169,272
  Rank15th
  Density397/km2 (1,030/sq mi)
GDP (2020-21)
  Total3.74 lakh crore (US$52 billion)
  Per capita109,069 (US$1,500)
Languages
  OfficialAssamese[4]
  Additional officialBengali in Barak Valley[5]
Bodo in Bodoland Territorial Region[6]
Time zoneUTC+05:30 (IST)
ISO 3166 codeIN-AS
HDI (2018) 0.614[7]
medium · 30th
Literacy (2011)72.19%[8]
Sex ratio (2011)958 /1000 [8]
Websiteassam.gov.in
First recognised as an administrative division on 1 April 1911, and led to the establishment of Assam Province by partitioning Province of East Bengal and Assam.
^[*] Assam was one of the original provincial divisions of British India.
^[*] Assam has had a legislature since 1937.[9]

Assam is known for Assam tea and Assam silk. The state was the first site for oil drilling in Asia.[12] Assam is home to the one-horned Indian rhinoceros, along with the wild water buffalo, pygmy hog, tiger and various species of Asiatic birds, and provides one of the last wild habitats for the Asian elephant. The Assamese economy is aided by wildlife tourism to Kaziranga National Park and Manas National Park, which are World Heritage Sites. Dibru-Saikhowa National Park is famed for its feral horses. Sal tree forests are found in the state which, as a result of abundant rainfall, look green all year round. Assam receives more rainfall than most parts of India; this rain feeds the Brahmaputra River, whose tributaries and oxbow lakes provide the region with a hydro-geomorphic environment.