Avera and inward

In medieval England, avera and inward (or inguard) were feudal obligations assessed against a royal demesne. The terms refer to various services rendered to the crown in lieu of payment in coin.[1] Avera is connected with carrying items by horse,[1] or possibly ploughing[2] or both.[3] Inward is probably the provision of a bodyguard during a royal visit:[4] in Anglo-Saxon England it could be claimed by a sheriff.[5] The services could usually be commuted to a monetary payment: in Hertfordshire avera could be commuted for fourpence.[6] The services were usually found in the eastern counties, especially Cambridgeshire and Hertfordshire,[3] due from sokemen.[7] In Hertfordshire, inward is found only in the manor of Hitchin.[7]