Avignon Papacy

The Avignon Papacy, also known as the Babylonian Captivity, was the period from 1309 to 1376 during which seven successive popes resided in Avignon (then in the Kingdom of Arles, part of the Holy Roman Empire, now in France) rather than in Rome.[1] The situation arose from the conflict between the papacy and the French crown, culminating in the death of Pope Boniface VIII after his arrest and maltreatment by Philip IV of France. Following the further death of Pope Benedict XI, Philip forced a deadlocked conclave to elect the French Clement V as pope in 1305. Clement refused to move to Rome, and in 1309 he moved his court to the papal enclave at Avignon, where it remained for the next 67 years. This absence from Rome is sometimes referred to as the "Babylonian captivity of the Papacy".[2][3]

Papal States
Stato della Chiesa
Status Ecclesiasticus
Avignon Papacy
1309–1378/1437
Map of the Papal states with the ecclesiastical enclave of Avignon in France.
StatusPapal enclave and part of the Comtat Venaissin within France
CapitalAvignon
Common languagesLatin, Provençal, Occitan, French
Religion
Catholic
GovernmentTheocratic absolute
elective monarchy
Pope 
 1305–1314
Clement V (First)
 1370–1378
Gregory XI (Last)
 1430(?)–1437
Benedict XIV (Last antipope)
Historical eraMiddle Ages
 Curia moved to Avignon (Established)
1309
 Return to Rome of the last Avignon pope
1377
 The last Avignon antipope
1437
CurrencyRoman scudo
Preceded by
Succeeded by
County of Venaissin
Kingdom of France
Comtat Venaissin
Kingdom of France
Today part of

A total of seven popes reigned at Avignon, all French,[4][5] and all under the influence of the French Crown. In 1376, Gregory XI abandoned Avignon and moved his court to Rome (arriving on January 17, 1377). But after Gregory's death in 1378, deteriorating relations between his successor Urban VI and a faction of cardinals gave rise to the Western Schism. This started a second line of Avignon popes, subsequently regarded as illegitimate. The last Avignon antipope, Benedict XIII, lost most of his support in 1398, including that of France; after five years besieged by the French, he fled to Perpignan in 1403. The schism ended in 1417 at the Council of Constance.[6]