Baibars

Al-Malik al-Zahir Rukn al-Din Baibars al-Bunduqdari (Arabic: الملك الظاهر ركن الدين بيبرس البندقداري, al-Malik al-Ẓāhir Rukn al-Dīn Baybars al-Bunduqdārī) (1223/1228 – 1 July 1277), of Turkic Kipchak origin, commonly known as Baibars (Arabic: بيبرس, Baybars) – nicknamed Abu al-Futuh (أبو الفتوح; English: Father of Conquest, referring to his victories) – was the fourth Mamluk sultan of Egypt in the Bahri dynasty, succeeding Qutuz. He was one of the commanders of the Egyptian forces that inflicted a defeat on the Seventh Crusade of King Louis IX of France. He also led the vanguard of the Egyptian army at the Battle of Ain Jalut in 1260,[3] which marked the first substantial defeat of the Mongol army and is considered a turning point in history.[4]

Baibars
4th mamluk sultan
Sultan of Egypt and Syria
Reign24 October 1260 – 1 July 1277
Coronation1260 at Salihiyah
PredecessorSaif ad-Din Qutuz
SuccessorAl-Said Barakah
Born19 July 1223
Crimea, Dasht-i Kipchak[1][2]
Died1 July 1277 (aged 53)
Damascus, Mamluk Sultanate
Issueal-Said Barakah
Solamish
Names
al-Malik al-Zahir Rukn al-Din Baibars al-Bunduqdari Abu al-Futuh
HouseZahiri
DynastyBahri
ReligionSunni Islam

The reign of Baibars marked the start of an age of Mamluk dominance in the Eastern Mediterranean and solidified the durability of their military system. He managed to pave the way for the end of the Crusader presence in the Levant and reinforced the union of Egypt and Syria as the region's pre-eminent Muslim state, able to fend off threats from both Crusaders and Mongols, and even managed to subdue the kingdom of Makuria, which was famous for being unconquerable by previous Muslim empire invasion attempts. As sultan, Baibars also engaged in a combination of diplomacy and military action, allowing the Mamluks of Egypt to greatly expand their empire.