Bangalore (/bæŋɡəˈlɔːr/), officially Bengaluru (Kannada pronunciation: [ˈbeŋgɐɭuːɾu] (listen)), is the capital and largest city of the Indian state of Karnataka. It has a population of more than 8 million and a metropolitan population of around 11 million, making it the third most populous city and fifth most populous urban agglomeration in India, as well as the largest city in South India, and the 27th largest city in the world.[12] Located on the Deccan Plateau, at a height of over 900 m (3,000 ft) above sea level, Bangalore has a pleasant climate throughout the year. Its elevation is the highest among the major cities of India.[13] Bangalore is widely regarded as the "Silicon Valley of India" because of its role as the nation's leading information technology (IT) exporter.[1]

Clockwise from top:
UB City, Lal Bagh Glass House, Infosys pyramid, Vidhana Soudha, Opera, Bangalore Palace
Silicon Valley of India,[1] Garden City,[2] IT Capital of India
Interactive map outlining Bangalore
Location in Bangalore
Location in Karnataka
Location in India
Coordinates: 12°58′44″N 77°35′30″E
Country India
DistrictsBangalore Urban,Bangalore Rural
Founded byKempe Gowda I
  TypeMunicipal Corporation
(In absence of Mayor)
Rakesh Singh, IAS
  Municipal CommissionerTushar Giri Nath, IAS[3]
  Megacity741 km2 (286 sq mi)
8,005 km2 (3,091 sq mi)
Elevation920 m (3,020 ft)
  Density11,000/km2 (30,000/sq mi)
Demonym(s)Bangalorean, Bengalurinavaru, Bengalurean, Bengaluriga
Time zoneUTC+05:30 (IST)
560 xxx
Area code(s)+91-(0)80
Vehicle registrationKA:01-05, 41, 50-53, 57-61
Metro GDP(PPP)$110 billion[10](2021)
Official languageKannada[11]

The city's history dates back to around 890 CE, as found in a stone inscription found at the Nageshwara Temple in Begur, Bangalore. In 1537 CE, Kempé Gowdā – a feudal ruler under the Vijayanagara Empire – established a mud fort, considered the foundation of modern Bangalore and its oldest areas, or petes, which still exist. After the fall of the Vijayanagar empire, Kempe Gowda declared independence; in 1638, a large Adil Shahi Bijapur army defeated Kempe Gowda III, and Bangalore was given to them as a jagir (feudal estate).The Mughals later captured Bangalore and sold it to Chikkadevaraja Wodeyar (1673–1704), the then ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore.[14] When Haider Ali seized control of the Kingdom of Mysore, the administration of Bangalore passed into his hands.

The city was captured by the British East India Company after victory in the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War (1799), who returned administrative control of the city to the Maharaja of Mysore. The old city developed under the dominions of the Maharaja of Mysore and was made capital of the Princely State of Mysore, which existed as a nominally sovereign entity of the British Raj. In 1809, the British shifted their cantonment to Bangalore, outside the old city, and a town grew up around it, governed as part of British India. Following India's independence in 1947, Bangalore became the capital of Mysore State, and remained the capital when the new Indian state of Karnataka was formed in 1956. The two urban settlements of Bangalore – city and cantonment – which had developed as independent entities merged into a single urban centre in 1949. The existing Kannada name, Bengalūru, was declared the city's official name in 2006.

Bangalore is the second fastest-growing major metropolis in India.[15][16] Recent estimates of the metro economy of its urban area have ranked Bangalore either the fourth or fifth most productive metro area of India.[10][17] It is home to many educational and research institutions. Numerous state-owned aerospace and defence organisations are located in the city. The city also houses the Kannada film industry and is a hub of sporting events.

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