Battle of Gaugamela

The Battle of Gaugamela (/ˌɡɔːɡəˈmlə/; Greek: Γαυγάμηλα), also called the Battle of Arbela (Greek: Ἄρβηλα), was a battle that took place in 331 BC between the forces of the Army of Macedon under Alexander the Great and the Persian Army under King Darius III. It was the second and final battle between the two kings, and is considered to be the final blow to the Achaemenid Empire, resulting in Alexander's complete conquest of it.[8]

Battle of Gaugamela
Part of the Wars of Alexander the Great

Scene of the Battle of Gaugamela (also called "Battle of Arbela"). Engraving from 1913
Date1 October 331 BC
Location
Probably Tel Gomel (Gaugamela) near Erbil, modern Iraqi Kurdistan
36.56°N 43.444°E / 36.56; 43.444
Result Macedonian victory[1][2][3]
Territorial
changes
Alexander gains Babylon, half of Persia and all other parts of Mesopotamia
Belligerents

Macedonia

Hellenic League
Achaemenid Empire
Commanders and leaders
Strength
Casualties and losses
Gaugamela
Location of the Battle of Gaugamela
  current battle

The fighting took place in Gaugamela, which literally meant "The Camel's House", a village on the banks of the river Bumodus. The area today would be considered modern-day northern Iraq. Alexander's army was heavily outnumbered and modern historians say that "the odds were enough to give the most experienced veteran pause".[9] Despite the overwhelming odds, Alexander's army emerged victorious due to the employment of superior tactics and the clever usage of light infantry forces. It was a decisive victory for the League of Corinth, and it led to the fall of Achaemenid Empire and of Darius III.

The Battle of Gaugamela is regarded as the climax of a prolonged war between East and West; a war that had been intermittently waged for more than a century and a half.[9] The victory also resulted in, and solidified, Alexander's position as the standing king of Asia.[8][10]