Birth rate

The birth rate in a period is the total number of live births per 1,000 population divided by the length of the period in years.[1] The number of live births is normally taken from a universal registration system for births; population counts from a census, and estimation through specialized demographic techniques.[clarification needed] The birth rate (along with mortality and migration rates) is used to calculate population growth. The estimated average population may be taken as the mid-year population.[2][3]

Countries by crude birth rate (CBR) in 2017.

Another term used interchangeably with 'birth rate' is natality.[4]

When the crude death rate is subtracted from the crude birth rate (CBR), the result is the rate of natural increase (RNI).[5] This is equal to the rate of population change (excluding migration).[5]

The total (crude) birth rate (which includes all births)—typically indicated as births per 1,000 population—is distinguished from a set of age-specific rates (the number of births per 1,000 persons, or more usually 1,000 females, in each age group).[6] The first known use of the term "birth rate" in English was in 1859.[7]

World historical and projected crude birth rates (1950–2050)
UN, medium variant, 2019 rev.[8]
YearsCBRYearsCBR
1950–195536.92000–200521.0
1955–196035.42005–201020.3
1960–196535.22010–201519.5
1965–197034.02015–202018.5
1970–197531.42020–202517.5
1975–198028.52025–203016.6
1980–198527.72030–203516.0
1985–199027.42035–204015.5
1990–199524.22040–204515.0
1995–200022.22045–205014.6

The average global birth rate was 18.5 births per 1,000 total population in 2016.[9] The death rate was 7.8 per 1,000. The RNI was thus 1.6 percent. In 2012 the average global birth rate was 19.611 according to the World Bank[10] and 19.15 births per 1,000 total population according to the CIA,[11] compared to 20.09 per 1,000 total population in 2007.[12]

The 2016 average of 18.6 births per 1,000 total population equates to approximately 4.3 births per second or about 256 births per minute for the world.[9]