Bookbinding is the process of building a book of codex manuscripts from an ordered stack of paper sheets with one's hands and tools. Firstly, one binds the sheets of papers along an edge with a thick needle and strong thread. One can also use loose-leaf rings, binding posts, twin-loop spine coils, plastic spiral coils, and plastic spine combs, but they last for a shorter time. Next, one encloses the bound stack of paper in a cover. Finally, one places an attractive cover onto the boards, and features the publisher's information and artistic decorations.
The trade of binding books is in two parts: The first is stationery binding (vellum) for books planned to be written in. These include: accounting ledgers, business journals, blank-page books, guest logbooks, notebooks, manifold books, day books, diaries, and portfolios. The second is letterpress printing and binding deals with books planned to be read. This comprises: the library binding fine binding, edition binding and publisher's bindings.