Boron

Boron is a chemical element with the symbol B and atomic number 5. In its crystalline form it is a brittle, dark, lustrous metalloid; in its amorphous form it is a brown powder. As the lightest element of the boron group it has three valence electrons for forming covalent bonds, resulting in many compounds such as boric acid, the mineral sodium borate, and the ultra-hard crystals of boron carbide and boron nitride.

Boron, 5B
boron (β-rhombohedral)[1]
Boron
Pronunciation/ˈbɔːrɒn/ (BOR-on)
Allotropesα-, β-rhombohedral, β-tetragonal (and more)
Appearanceblack-brown
Standard atomic weight Ar°(B)
  • [10.806, 10.821]
  • 10.81±0.02 (abridged)[2]
Boron in the periodic table
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercury (element) Thallium Lead Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Nihonium Flerovium Moscovium Livermorium Tennessine Oganesson


B

Al
berylliumboroncarbon
Atomic number (Z)5
Groupgroup 13 (boron group)
Periodperiod 2
Block  p-block
Electron configuration[He] 2s2 2p1
Electrons per shell2, 3
Physical properties
Phase at STPsolid
Melting point2349 K (2076 °C, 3769 °F)
Boiling point4200 K (3927 °C, 7101 °F)
Density when liquid (at m.p.)2.08 g/cm3
Heat of fusion50.2 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization508 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity11.087 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 2348 2562 2822 3141 3545 4072
Atomic properties
Oxidation states−5, −1, 0,[3] +1, +2, +3[4][5] (a mildly acidic oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 2.04
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 800.6 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 2427.1 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 3659.7 kJ/mol
  • (more)
Atomic radiusempirical: 90 pm
Covalent radius84±3 pm
Van der Waals radius192 pm
Spectral lines of boron
Other properties
Natural occurrenceprimordial
Crystal structure rhombohedral
Speed of sound thin rod16,200 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansionβ form: 5–7 µm/(m⋅K) (at 25 °C)[6]
Thermal conductivity27.4 W/(m⋅K)
Electrical resistivity~106 Ω⋅m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic orderingdiamagnetic[7]
Molar magnetic susceptibility−6.7×10−6 cm3/mol[7]
Mohs hardness~9.5
CAS Number7440-42-8
History
DiscoveryJoseph Louis Gay-Lussac and Louis Jacques Thénard[8] (30 June 1808)
First isolationHumphry Davy[9] (9 July 1808)
Main isotopes of boron
Iso­tope Abun­dance Half-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
10B 20% stable[10]
11B 80% stable[10]
10B content is 19.1–20.3% in natural samples, with the remainder being 11B.[11]
 Category: Boron
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Boron is synthesized entirely by cosmic ray spallation and supernovae and not by stellar nucleosynthesis, so it is a low-abundance element in the Solar System and in the Earth's crust.[12] It constitutes about 0.001 percent by weight of Earth's crust.[13] It is concentrated on Earth by the water-solubility of its more common naturally occurring compounds, the borate minerals. These are mined industrially as evaporites, such as borax and kernite. The largest known deposits are in Turkey, the largest producer of boron minerals.

Elemental boron is a metalloid that is found in small amounts in meteoroids but chemically uncombined boron is not otherwise found naturally on Earth. Industrially, the very pure element is produced with difficulty because of contamination by carbon or other elements that resist removal.[14] Several allotropes exist: amorphous boron is a brown powder; crystalline boron is silvery to black, extremely hard (about 9.5 on the Mohs scale), and a poor electrical conductor at room temperature. The primary use of the element itself is as boron filaments with applications similar to carbon fibers in some high-strength materials.

Boron is primarily used in chemical compounds. About half of all production consumed globally is an additive in fiberglass for insulation and structural materials. The next leading use is in polymers and ceramics in high-strength, lightweight structural and heat-resistant materials. Borosilicate glass is desired for its greater strength and thermal shock resistance than ordinary soda lime glass. As sodium perborate, it is used as a bleach. A small amount is used as a dopant in semiconductors, and reagent intermediates in the synthesis of organic fine chemicals. A few boron-containing organic pharmaceuticals are used or are in study. Natural boron is composed of two stable isotopes, one of which (boron-10) has a number of uses as a neutron-capturing agent.

The intersection of boron with biology is very small. Consensus on it as essential for mammalian life is lacking. Borates have low toxicity in mammals (similar to table salt) but are more toxic to arthropods and are occasionally used as insecticides. Boron-containing organic antibiotics are known. Although only traces are required, it is an essential plant nutrient.


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